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Studying Human BehaviorHow Scientists Investigate Aggression and Sexuality$
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Helen E. Longino

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780226492872

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226921822.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 28 September 2021

Neurobiological Approaches

Neurobiological Approaches

(p.63) 5 Neurobiological Approaches
Studying Human Behavior

Helen E. Longino

University of Chicago Press

This chapter discusses neurobiological approaches to studying human behavior, covering methods, scope, and assumptions. Neurobiological research seeks answers to the question: What role do neural structures and processes play in behavior? The study methods employed are retrospective, concurrent, and prospective. Retrospective methods include the use of autopsies to identify neurostructural correlates of behavioral patterns attributed to the individual and correlational studies of prison, clinic, and hospital records to identify associations between brain injuries or other trauma (e.g., birth complications) and later aggressive or criminal behavior. Concurrent methods include brain imaging or measuring changes in other physical parameters (heart rate) associable with exposure to particular cognitive or sensory stimuli. Prospective methods include animal experiments to identify the effects on behavior of organizational or activational exposure to bio- and psychoactive substances, and clinical trials in humans to ascertain physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects of such substances.

Keywords:   research approaches, human behaviors, brain, neural structures, retrospective methods, concurrent methods, prospective methods, behavioral research

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