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The Black Child-SaversRacial Democracy and Juvenile Justice$
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Geoff K. Ward

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780226873169

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226873190.001.0001

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Institutionalizing Racial Justice: The Black Surrogate Parental State, 1930–65

Institutionalizing Racial Justice: The Black Surrogate Parental State, 1930–65

(p.163) Six Institutionalizing Racial Justice: The Black Surrogate Parental State, 1930–65
The Black Child-Savers

Geoff K. Ward

University of Chicago Press

The second wave of black child-saving initiatives was a duality of structure and agency rooted within and shaping a changing racial terrain. This chapter emphasizes the evolution of a distinct sense of self and society among black women and men after World War I, especially in the urban North. This played a role in the changing outlook and organization of black child-saving initiatives. A new self-concept and social consciousness blended gender, race, and class identities to shape more assertive, professional, and eclectic icons of the modern race man and woman. These identities intermixed notions such as the modern woman, the New Negro, and the race expert. This catalyzed, divided, and, eventually, isolated black civic leaders and organizations. This chapter also focuses on the resources mobilized during the second wave. Vanguard efforts had relied almost exclusively on the social networks and resources of black clubwomen's associations. The more robust organizational and resource base of the growing civil rights establishment supported the new leadership of black professional race experts.

Keywords:   racial justice, black child-saving initiative, Vanguard effort, American juvenile justice, American democracy, Jim Crow, black youth, black community

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