The discourse among cultural Zionists regarding anthologies can be divided into four phases. In the first phase (ca. 1895–1907), the first few anthologies of Jewish literature were published prior to the First Zionist Congress in Basel (1897) and were primarily directed to the Jewish youth in Russia and Poland. The second phase (ca. 1908–14), preceding the First World War, witnessed the beginning of a systematic approach to anthologizing under the intellectual guidance of Bialik. The third phase (ca. 1916–25) witnessed attempts, in particular in the West, to modify and amplify Bialik's conception of ingathering, and the fourth phase began during the Fourth Aliyah (1924–28), when eighty thousand, mostly East European, Jews emigrated to Palestine. Among them was Nahman Bialik, in 1924, who, once there, became increasingly attuned to the sensibilities of the Jewish settlers, the Yishuv. In the ancient homeland, the anthology became the principal medium for the reconsideration of cultural memory.
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