Muslims have been in contact with Europe since the earliest years of Islam, and the reciprocal influences have been immense. Muslims have also lived in Europe for centuries, but it was not until the latter part of the twentieth century that a migratory influx of unprecedented size and complexity took place. Whether it was Algerians seeking employment or safety in the face of their own nation's convulsions, or “guest workers” from Turkey or Morocco whose families have followed them and established homes for more than a generation, the mutual impact of these huge movements of population have been crucial to the recent history and politics of the regions affected. Yet as much as the economic, political, and social aspects of this Muslim presence have received scholarly attention, remarkably little has been said about the possible ways in which the various forms of Islam practiced by these migrants from North Africa and the Middle East may have been affected by the experience of life among the Europeans. This chapter addresses this issue—the potential formation of one or more kinds of “Euro-Islam,” with significant implications for the development of Islam in the migrants' countries of origin as well as in their lives in Europe.
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