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DanteworldsA Reader's Guide to the Inferno$
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Guy P. Raffa

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780226702674

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226702780.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 03 June 2020

Circle 8, pouches 1–6: Fraud

Circle 8, pouches 1–6: Fraud

Inferno 18–23

(p.83) Circle 8, pouches 1–6: Fraud

Guy P. Raffa

University of Chicago Press

This chapter presents a brief plot summary for pouches one through six of the eighth circle of Hell, followed by explanations of “encounters” and “allusions”, significant verses (in Italian and English), and study questions to aid in comprehension and facilitate discussion of the poem. Circle eight, also called Malebolge (“evil pouches”), contains ten concentric ditches corresponding to different categories of fraud. The embankments separating the ditches are connected by stone bridges. Dante and Virgil view the shades by walking along the embankments and across the bridges, and at times by descending into a ditch. Punished in the first six ditches are (in order) pimps and seducers, flatterers, simonists (corrupt religious leaders), soothsayers, barrators (crooked public officials), and hypocrites. Jason, leader of the Argonauts, captures Dante's attention among the seducers being whipped by horned demons. In the next ditch, Dante recognizes a flatterer from Lucca wallowing in excrement. After verbally thrashing Pope Nicholas III, stuffed upside down in the ground for prostituting the church, Dante is himself rebuked by Virgil for weeping at the sight of the soothsayers, whose necks are twisted so that tears wet their buttocks. Barrators, immersed in a sea of boiling pitch, are tortured by a band of devils, whose malicious intentions force Virgil to grab Dante and slide down into the sixth pouch. There the travelers find Caiaphas; nailed to the ground, he is trampled by other hypocrites weighed down by gilded, lead-lined cloaks.

Keywords:   Dante Alighieri, Virgil, Malebolge, ditches, Jason, Lucca, Pope Nicholas III, Caiaphas, hell

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