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Social Security Programs and Retirement around the WorldReforms and Retirement Incentives$
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Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney C. Coile

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780226674100

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.001.0001

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Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Germany

Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Germany

Chapter:
(p.175) 5 Social Security Reforms and the Changing Retirement Behavior in Germany
Source:
Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World
Author(s):

Axel Börsch-Supan

Johannes Rausch

Nicolas Goll

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.003.0005

As in the other countries in this volume, the employment rate in Germany for those aged 55 to 69 had been declining in recent decades, and then began to rise dramatically. Among the 12 countries involved in this volume, Germany has experienced the largest increase in the employment rate of the 55-69 age group. This chapter investigates the role of structural policy changes since 1980. We summarize the institutional changes and pension reforms in Germany that may account for the trend reversal, and calculate an implicit tax on working longer. We find that for both men and women the increase in the employment rate coincides with a reduction in the early retirement incentive. The reduction of incentives mainly stems from the introduction of actuarial deductions for early retirement. In recent years the employment rate additionally increased due to the abolishment of specific early retirement pathways.

Keywords:   retirement incentives, employment, pension reform, implicit tax on working longer, older workers, Germany

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