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Social Security Programs and Retirement around the WorldReforms and Retirement Incentives$
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Axel Börsch-Supan and Courtney C. Coile

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780226674100

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2021

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226674247.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 26 June 2022

Retirement Incentives and Canada’s Social Security Programs

Retirement Incentives and Canada’s Social Security Programs

(p.79) 2 Retirement Incentives and Canada’s Social Security Programs
Social Security Programs and Retirement around the World

Kevin Milligan

Tammy Schirle

University of Chicago Press

Since the mid-1990s in Canada, the employment and labor force participation rates of older men and women have increased steadily. In this study, we document Canadian trends alongside measures of the incentives to continue working at older ages embodied in Canada’s social security programs. The social security benefit an individual or couple receives largely depends on their career earnings. We demonstrate that Canada’s programs offering means-tested benefits play an important role in the incentives one has to continue working at older ages. While the main pension program (the Canada Pension Plan) offers higher annual benefits when labor force departure and claiming are delayed, every dollar gained by a low-income senior in annual CPP benefits results in a loss of means-tested benefits. We represent this as an implicit tax on continued work. Since the late 1980s, it appears this implicit tax has been declining.

Keywords:   earnings, benefits, pension reform, retirement incentives, employment, Canada, CPP, implicit tax, working longer, older workers

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