Nearly every solid material on earth consists of chemical compounds, sometimes only one, sometimes several together. Solid substances composed of single elements uncombined with others are rarities; even “pure” gold and “pure” iron are almost never absolutely chemically pure. When elements combine to form compounds, energy is either produced (or liberated — “evolved,” as it is often called) or used up (“consumed”). A reaction that liberates energy, most often in the form of heat, is exothermic; a reaction that will take place only if energy is provided from some outside source is endothermic. This chapter discusses the following: the energy in chemical bonds; energy in chemical compounds; ice and stream; and chemical energy to electrical energy and back again.
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