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Making It Up TogetherThe Art of Collective Improvisation in Balinese Music and Beyond$
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Leslie A. Tilley

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780226661131

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226667744.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 24 July 2021

The Complicated Story of Improvisation

The Complicated Story of Improvisation

Models and Methods, Creativity and Conceptual Space

(p.21) Chapter One The Complicated Story of Improvisation
(p.iii) Making It Up Together

Leslie A. Tilley

University of Chicago Press

This chapter examines the concept of musical improvisation, unraveling the myriad of terms used to describe it and proposing language and frameworks for analyzing diverse improvisatory processes in unified ways. “Improvisation” is characterized as a continuum of creative options, from relatively strict formulaic variation to relatively free improvisation, each drawing in its own way from a pre-existing musical model and informed by a culturally-accepted knowledge base, which together make up the so-called conceptual space of the practice. An examination of creative cognitive processes, such as combinatorial creativity and exploratory creativity, and a musical analysis of two contrasting improvised excerpts (of Hindustani alap and Balinese kendang arja) together elucidate the unique characteristics and functions of diverse models for improvisation and reveal four complementary processes of improvisation: interpretation, embellishment, recombination, and expansion. These processes are then surveyed across varied practices. Finally, the concept of the improvisational “knowledge base” is explored, examining how varying degrees of conscious knowledge about a practice’s underlying guidelines affect their acquisition by both practitioners and analysts, and exploring how such a knowledge base informs both performance and analysis. The aim of the chapter is to provide widely-applicable terminology and concepts for analyzing improvisation across genres and cultures.

Keywords:   improvisation, improvisatory processes, cognitive processes, variation, musical analysis, model, knowledge base, conceptual space, Hindustani alap, kendang arja

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