This chapter examines the historical context of the Chechen separatist suicide terrorist campaign as well as its groups, goals, trajectory, targets, and trends over time. The analysis reveals that the more accurate cause of attacks is resistance to Russian occupation and that suicide terrorism has been the weapon of last resort by the separatists after ordinary resistance failed to achieve Russian military withdrawal. The chapter also suggests that the variation in the trajectory of suicide attacks from 2000 to 2009 corresponds to counterterrorism campaigns that were first initiated by Russian occupational forces and then by the Chechen president Ramzan Kadyrov.
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