The Conclusion explores two themes. First, it places New Orleans trends in crime and punishment in national perspective. Although local pressures shaped violence and criminal justice, the broader forces that influenced New Orleans, such as the Great Migration and the Great Depression, affected cities across the country. Thus, New Orleans’s changes in crime and law enforcement echoed those of other urban centers. Chicago, for example, experienced a similar surge in homicide during the 1920s, a comparable decrease during the 1930s, and a nearly identical set of fluctuations in police homicide. Second, the Conclusion suggests the unsettling ways in which the transformation of criminal justice in early twentieth-century New Orleans established the foundation for late twentieth-century trends, when rates of African American homicide tumbled but rates of African American conviction, African American incarceration and execution, and police violence against African American residents increased. Mass incarceration and the modern crisis in race and criminal justice, in short, has deep roots.
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