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Learning One's Native TongueCitizenship, Contestation, and Conflict in America$
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Tracy B. Strong

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780226623191

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226623368.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 23 September 2021

Civil War, Citizenship, and Collectivity

Civil War, Citizenship, and Collectivity

(p.124) 5 Civil War, Citizenship, and Collectivity
Learning One's Native Tongue

Tracy B. Strong

University of Chicago Press

Blacks had joined the Union Army in great numbers, which increased the pressure to make them voting citizens. Additionally, after the War, General Sherman had given 400000 acres of good land to newly freed blacks. This was confirmed by Congress but vetoed by President Johnson. A number of extraordinary petitions from the blacks have survived. The brief possibility of a biracial country of small landowners vanishes. The lot of blacks is improved only by not being able to be bought and sold. In the North, (and to a lesser degree in the South) income inequalities grow exponentially. As a result, a number of popular movements grow up in resistance to the gradual monopoly-dominated economy and consequent political power. While meeting some temporary successes, none of these successfully develop a political strategy to further their economic aims. The age also sees a turn towards a kind of technological utopianism. The aims of social justice are also taken up by progressive Protestantism, notably in the Social Gospel Movement.

Keywords:   General Sherman, Edisto Island blacks, Collective entitlement to citizenship, Charles Soule (Union Army Captain), W.E.B. Dubois, James Baldwin, The Gilded Age, Greenback Party, Eight-Hour Day movement, Knights of Labor

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