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How Knowledge MovesWriting the Transnational History of Science and Technology$
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John Krige

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780226605852

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226606040.001.0001

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Export Controls as Instruments to Regulate Knowledge Acquisition in a Globalizing Economy

Export Controls as Instruments to Regulate Knowledge Acquisition in a Globalizing Economy

Chapter:
(p.62) Chapter Two Export Controls as Instruments to Regulate Knowledge Acquisition in a Globalizing Economy
Source:
How Knowledge Moves
Author(s):

John Krige

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226606040.003.0003

Export controls do not only regulate international trade. They also regulate the transfer of information, knowledge, and know-how (intangible technology) to foreign nationals, both abroad and in the US (a so-called deemed export). They have become increasingly wide in scope, invasive, and nationalistic in the global space of knowledge production and circulation. The reach of the regulatory National Security State has expanded to embrace the education and training of scientists, engineers, and project managers in face-to-face interactions at both academic and corporate sites. Heavy fines and imprisonment have been imposed on US entities and individuals who violate the law, which is subject to constant (re)negotiation between diverse stakeholders who strive to balance academic freedom and access to markets with threats to American national economic and military security. This paper traces the historical arc of these developments from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. It highlights key moments when the sharing of sensitive but unclassified knowledge and know-how with foreign nationals was a major preoccupation of the National Security State. An increasingly restrictive export control regime was put in place to deal with threats from first the Soviet Union and then the People's Republic of China.

Keywords:   sensitive but unclassfied, national security state, intangible techology, know-how, deemed exports, Fred Bucy, Soviet Union, China, face-to-face interactions, foreign nationals

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