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The Browning of the New South$
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Jennifer A. Jones

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780226600840

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226601038.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 28 October 2020

Closed Gates: The Rise of Local Enforcement

Closed Gates: The Rise of Local Enforcement

(p.66) 3 Closed Gates: The Rise of Local Enforcement
The Browning of the New South

Jennifer A. Jones

University of Chicago Press

Chapter 3 explores the abrupt shift in immigration policy and social responses to the influx of Latinos into North Carolina and throughout the region. Focusing on state-level legal changes and municipal actions from 1990 to 2010, this chapter shows how legal changes beginning in 2005—namely, legislation that denied access to state identification and driver’s licenses to undocumented immigrants—were key in changing the immigration experiences of Mexicans arriving in Winston-Salem. As individuals, immigrants experienced the anti-immigrant shift as distinctly local and largely shaped by municipal actors and local bureaucrats. In taking a turn away from labor recruitment and toward racial exclusion and discrimination, Winston-Salem and similar municipalities fundamentally altered incorporation patterns. The chapter explores what I call reverse incorporation, in which Latino immigrants who had previously been welcomed were abruptly denied access to both structural resources and welcoming attitudes, underscoring the significant damage it did to Mexicans’ prospects for upward mobility.

Keywords:   immigration policy, North Carolina, Latinos, Mexicans, reverse incorporation, incorporation

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