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Sacred MandatesAsian International Relations since Chinggis Khan$
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Timothy Brook, Michael van Walt van Praag, and Miek Boltjes

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780226562629

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226562933.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 26 September 2021

The Manchu Great State

The Manchu Great State

(p.123) Chapter Five The Manchu Great State
Sacred Mandates
Timothy Brook, Michael van Walt van Praag, Miek Boltjes
University of Chicago Press

The Qing Great State, founded by the Manchus in 1636, absorbed Ming China into a polity that ruled East Asia for close to three centuries. To recruit sources for their legitimacy, the Manchus drew on Inner Asian Mongol and Tibetan Buddhist practices and forms of authority as well as Chinese. The Qing emperor was thus at once the Great Khan who commanded the allegiance of Chinggisid princes, the emanation of Manjusri who was recognized by the Dalai Lama, and the emperor at the apex of the Chinese tribute system. The realm the Qing emperor ruled was managed through particular relationships strategically developed with the ruling elites of each part of his realm in accordance with their respective worldviews. Stabilized from three different sources, the Qing was able to pursue a process of empire-building that dominated much of Asia at a time when states based in Europe were also building world empires. Skillful management of relations in these different legal orders held the whole together, but empire-building was a military project and could be sustained only through an investment of resources at a level. By the nineteenth century, the Qing was not able to meet these costs.

Keywords:   empire-building, Manchus, mandate of Heaven, Mongolia, Nurhaci, Qing dynasty, Tibetan Buddhism

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