This chapter describes work in philosophy in the period 1900-1940 that influenced European linguists, and work that called for greater interest in the nature and structure of language. Edmund Husserl’s work is little cited today, but his views on logic have left a mark on how linguists work. Logical positivism and logical empiricism, developed in Vienna and Berlin, also expressed a view of scientific knowledge that reinforced the ideas of Leonard Bloomfield and those influenced by him. Rudolf Carnap’s work in turn would influence those who, like Noma Chomsky, began to think about syntax in a highly formal way.
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