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Battle in the Mind Fields$
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John A. Goldsmith and Bernard Laks

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780226550800

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226550947.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 21 September 2021

Psychology, 1900–1940

Psychology, 1900–1940

(p.239) Chapter Five Psychology, 1900–1940
Battle in the Mind Fields

John A. Goldsmith

Bernard Laks

University of Chicago Press

This chapter explores the evolution of academic psychology in the first four decades of the twentieth century. In the United States, a style of psychological study that emphasized the ability of individuals to solve problems in a real context gained adherents who called this functionalism. Another movement, behaviorism, arose partly in response to functionalism, and partly as a reflection of the trend to see science as limited to phenomena that can be measured by any observer and that is also limited, as positivists had proposed, to visible things. At the same time, Gestalt psychology was winning minds among German psychologists, and as Nazism gained ground in Europe, leading Gestalt psychologists were coming to the United States, where they challenged the behaviorism they saw around them in the work of their new American colleagues.

Keywords:   history of psychology, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, Nazism

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