This chapter explores the evolution of academic psychology in the first four decades of the twentieth century. In the United States, a style of psychological study that emphasized the ability of individuals to solve problems in a real context gained adherents who called this functionalism. Another movement, behaviorism, arose partly in response to functionalism, and partly as a reflection of the trend to see science as limited to phenomena that can be measured by any observer and that is also limited, as positivists had proposed, to visible things. At the same time, Gestalt psychology was winning minds among German psychologists, and as Nazism gained ground in Europe, leading Gestalt psychologists were coming to the United States, where they challenged the behaviorism they saw around them in the work of their new American colleagues.
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