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Song WalkingWomen, Music, and Environmental Justice in an African Borderland$
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Angela Impey

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780226537962

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226538150.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 22 May 2022

Amaculo Manihamba

Amaculo Manihamba

A Genre Considered

(p.45) Two Amaculo Manihamba
Song Walking

Angela Impey

University of Chicago Press

Chapter Two sketches the musical substructure of the book, discussing the organology and performance practice of the mouth harp, and its trade in southern Africa, known as isitolotolo or isitweletwele. Performed to accompany women’s walking songs (amaculo manihamba), the chapter traces the modification of the instrument from transmitter of rumors and everyday concerns by pre-marital women to the voice of women’s political and economic resistance in the early 1960s. This shift is precipitated by the forced removal of families from the Ndumo Game Reserve, compelling male relatives to seek employment elsewhere and obliging women to assume new, often illegal livelihood practices. The chapter describes how these economic changes, which rendered women vulnerable to constant surveillance, imprisonment and extended periods of forced labor, were fundamental to the alteration of the structure and temper of the songs, and to their use by women as a strategy toward more bearable citizenship. The chapter concludes with speculation on the reasons for the demise of this practice in the 1970s, attributed in large part to regional political instability and the erection by the South African government of an electrified fence along the state border, leading to their gradual dislocation from their social and spatial moorings.

Keywords:   amaculo manihamba, isitweletwele, musical continuity, musical change, social mooring, spatial mooring

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