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Cigarettes, Inc.An Intimate History of Corporate Imperialism$
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Nan Enstad

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780226533285

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: May 2019

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226533452.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 18 September 2021

The Bright Leaf Cigarette in the Age of Empire

The Bright Leaf Cigarette in the Age of Empire

Chapter:
(p.16) 1 The Bright Leaf Cigarette in the Age of Empire
Source:
Cigarettes, Inc.
Author(s):

Nan Enstad

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226533452.003.0001

Lewis Ginter of Richmond, Virginia was the entrepreneur most responsible for the development of the bright leaf cigarette that would transform the twentieth century. Ginter married bright leaf tobacco, locally produced in Virginia and North Carolina, with the foreign novelty of the cigarette, typically made with Turkish tobaccos. Ginter entered a field dominated by a quickly growing Egyptian industry that had created the first global cigarette and had defied assumptions that globalization always flows West to East. Ginter utilized his knowledge of a transnational homosocial/queer elite male culture to establish cigarettes first in London’s gentlemen’s clubs. The bright leaf cigarette soon circulated globally, carrying affects of nation, race and empire. Only after Ginter achieved success did James B. Duke enter the field, and Ginter and Duke joined forced to create the American Tobacco Company corporation. In China, the bright leaf cigarette also entered as a foreign novelty and, unlike in the US, became the dominant type of cigarette, shaped by Chinese merchants such as Zheng Bozhao, courtesans, and anti-imperial protestors as well as by US marketers. This chapter presents a new theory and story of entrepreneurial innovation.

Keywords:   Lewis Ginter, Zheng Bozhao, Cigarette, Egyptian, innovation, China, affect, empire, entrepreneur, queer

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