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Socrates and the JewsHellenism and Hebraism from Moses Mendelssohn to Sigmund Freud$
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Miriam Leonard

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780226472478

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: March 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226472492.001.0001

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Matthew Arnold in Zion:

Matthew Arnold in Zion:

Hebrews, Hellenes, Aryans, and Semites

(p.105) 3 Matthew Arnold in Zion:
Socrates and the Jews
University of Chicago Press

In 1869, Matthew Arnold published the essay Culture and Anarchy, in which he appealed to the intellectual and moral reform of England. The following year, the French intellectual Ernest Renan wrote a tract entitled La Réforme intellectuelle et morale calling for national regeneration in France. Despite being a great admirer of Renan's and a strong supporter of French culture, Arnold reacted strongly to La Réforme and chastised the French for their overzealous Hellenism. His prescription: A good dose of Hebraism. This chapter examines Culture and Anarchy through a series of frames that explain how the shifting discourses of language, nation, and race altered the meaning underlying the confrontation between Greeks and Jews at the heart of Arnold's analysis of English culture. It argues that Arnold's essay simultaneously extends the project of German philhellenism and looks toward a new conceptualization of culture in which the specificity of language and, increasingly, race played important roles.

Keywords:   Matthew Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, Ernest Renan, Hellenism, Hebraism, language, nation, race, Greeks, Jews

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