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Selective RemembrancesArchaeology in the Construction, Commemoration, and Consecration of National Pasts$

Philip L. Kohl, Mara Kozelsky, and Nachman Ben-Yehuda

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780226450582

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: March 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226450643.001.0001

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(p.405) Index

(p.405) Index

Source:
Selective Remembrances
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations.

Abbassid period, 198
Abdi, Kamyar, 9–10
Abdul Nasr, 220
Abduragimov, G. A., 101
Abramyan, A., 117
Abu el-Haj, Nadia, 302
Abuladze, Ilya, 105–6
Abu Musa, 206, 209, 213, 214, 216
Abu-Shukhidem camp, 334
Achaemenid Empire, 9, 372
Achaemenid monuments, 16
Afghanistan, 23
Aflaq, Michel, 201
Agathangelos, Saint, 103
Agathodoros, Saint, 93n15
Agayan, E., 117
Agni, 363
Aharoni, Yochanan, 291, 367
Ahswahen, King, 104, 105
Akkadians, 219
Alacahöyük, 164, 176
Al Alli Asrani, 372
Alans, 149
Alazani Valley, 103
Albanian alphabet, 109–10
Albanian Benjamin, 104
Albanian Book, 99–100, 101, 106–19;
Armenian ethnonyms, 111;
attempt to link Albanian alphabet with Lezgi language, 117–18;
determined to be a forgery, 100, 103;
Gadjiev's critique of, 5–6;
goal of legitimating political aspirations of Lezgis, 115;
“Lezgian-Albanian” calendar, 117;
loan words from Arabic, 109, 110;
myths and inaccuracies, 114–16;
page of, 102;
parallels with History of the Lezgins, 116–17;
punctuation, 108–9;
“scholarship” surrounding, 107;
thirty-seven symbols, 109;
use of inaudible spirant f, 114
Albanian Lectionary, 120–21
Albanian palimpsests, 120
“Albanian Written Marks,” 110
Alexidze, Z., 6, 120–21
Alice of Athlone, Princess, 223
Aligrama, 366
All That Remains (Khalidi), 334
Aloni, Shulamit, 285
Alpan, 107
Altneuland (Old New Land) (Herzl), 302
“Amazons,” 113
American Revolution, 21
American School of Oriental Research, 335, 338
Amideast, 333
Amnon (probably Ben-Tor), 260
Anatolia, 9, 167, 176, 183, 359
Anatolia Insurance Company, 166
Anau, 178
ancient Romanian stage (Dridu culture), 136
Anderson, Benedict, 11, 350–51
(p.406) Andian languages, 121
Andrew, Saint, 76, 151
Andronovo culture, 364, 366
Ankara, 181
anticolonial archaeological traditions, 8
anti-Semitism, 50, 57, 182, 252
Antonenko, Sergei, 41, 51
Aphraat, 112
Appianus, 113
“Appropriating the Past: Heritage, Tourism, and Archaeology in Israel” (Baram), 14
Arab archaeology, 225, 230–31
“Arab homeland,” 219
Arabian Gulf, 206;
Google-bombing of, 208;
name promoted by Arab states, 220, 224, 231, 232–33;
use of name in archaeological literature, 227, 231
Arabian Gulf in Antiquity (Potts), 228
Arabian Gulf Rugby Football Union, 221
Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain, 221
Arabic language, 218
Arabic poetry, 200
Arab-Israeli war of 1948, 331
Arab-Israeli war of 1967, 49
Arab League, condemnation of Iran's recognition of Israel, 220
Arab nationalism: animosity toward the West, 220;
based on common language and shared history, 218;
branding of Iran as Western collaborator, 220;
formulation of in Iraq, 218;
and the Persian Gulf, 217–21
Arab states: attitude toward the Persian Gulf, 229–30;
promotion of name “Arabian Gulf,” 220, 221, 224, 232–33;
support for Western archaeological research, 231
Arafat, Yasir, 307, 342
Aramaic script, 104
Aran, Gideon, 288
Aratta, 42, 44
archaeological artifacts, repatriation, 310
“archaeological culture” concept, 135, 136
archaeological literature: “Arabian Gulf” used more frequently from 1970s onward, 227;
use of names other than “Persian Gulf,” 221–29
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), 350, 368
archaeology: Arab, 225, 230–31;
closely tied to formation of nation-states in developing countries, 379;
and cultural efforts to create a consciousness of likeness among individuals, 18–21;
and new nationalism, 21–24;
and perpetuation of ethnic rivalries, 4;
as a politicized discipline, 2;
processual definition of, 333, 335, 341;
provision of “proof” for primordial ethnicity, 321;
recruited, 252;
role in civil religion, 13–14;
role of identity politics in, 2;
and social construction of knowledge, 19;
Archaeology magazine, 313
“An Archaeology of Palestine: Mourning a Dream” (Ziadeh-Seely), 10
Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf (Rice), 228
archaeo-tourism, 300, 319, 321
The Arctic Home in the Vedas (Tilak), 40
Arctic Homeland myth, 38–41, 52–57;
depiction of primordial realm of Nostratic (Boreal) family of languages, 55;
Guseva on, 39, 40, 41, 45;
legitimation of territorial expansionism, 58–59;
pseudoscholarship on, 37–38;
racial connotations, 58;
in Russian and Ukrainian nationalist myths, 31–32, 36
Arctida (Arctogäa), 39
Ariel, Rabbi Ya'akov, 287–88
Arik, Remzi Oguz, 177, 178
Arikan, Saffet, 180
Arisena, 372
Ariyana (“the land of the Aryas”), 372
Arkaim, 7, 52, 56, 364
Armenia, 104
Armenian script, 108
Arnoff, Myron, 304
Arnold, Bettina, 343
Arsacid Parthian Dynasty, 104, 105
arya, carried only connotations of status and culture in Sanskrit, 349, 374n8
Aryan, as a linguistic label, 357–61
“Aryan astrology,” 56
Aryan homeland: as originary locus of Indo-Europeans, 172;
quest for in northern India, 20;
Russian theory, 20, 32, 41;
southern Urals viewed as, 52;
Ukraine as, 43, 44
Aryan Homeland (Shilov), 45
(p.407) “The Aryan Homeland Debate in India” (Ratnagar), 15
Aryan India, 352–55
Aryanism: became increasingly identified with Hinduism in nineteenth century, 354;
past and current misuses of, 7;
Russian nationalists' attempt to isolate Ukrainians from, 45–46;
“Slavic-Aryanism,” 38
Aryan Problem, 371
Aryan Rus', 51
Aryans, 354;
arguments for an indigenous origin, 368–70;
immigrants in South Asia after 2000 BC, 350;
imposed rule over fortified Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex settlements, 365;
intertribal rivalry among, 364;
and race, 355–57
The Aryans (Childe), 172–73
“Arya-Rus,” 46
Arya Samaj, 354, 355, 374n11
Aryavarta, 355
Ashkenazi, 308
Asil, Naji al-, 199, 223–24
Asov, A., 45, 55–56, 58
Assyrians, 219
Atakule tower, 165
Atatürk (Mustafa Kemal), 168, 170, 183, 186n1
Atlas of the World, original version of map of Persian Gulf region, 207
Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine, 86
Avarian language, 121
Avaro-Ando-Didoian language, 118
Avars, 121
Avestan, 358, 360, 361, 374n9
Avestan texts, 366
Ayodhya, mosque at, 15, 82, 350, 371, 375n21
Ayudhaya, 382–83
Ayutthaya period, 383, 388, 389, 390
Azarnoush, Massoud, 228
Azerbaijan, 99;
relationship between archaeology and nationalism, 4, 5–6;
Udin in, 6
Azov Sea region, 43
Babeş, Mircea, 133, 140, 154
Babur Mosque at Ayodhya, 15, 82, 350, 371, 375n21
Babylonians, 219
Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), 364, 365;
artifacts with parallels elsewhere, 365;
Dashly 3, 365;
seals, 366;
viewed as Indo-Iranian, 366
Bactrian two-humped camel, 364, 365, 367
Baghdad, 217
Baghdad Modern Art Group (Jama'et Baghdad lil Fann al-Hadity), 199
Bahrain: entered protectorate treaty with British in 1861, 214;
first systematic archaeological field research, 225;
and Gulf Cooperation Council, 216;
independence, 213
Bakhchisaray, 71, 82, 90
Bali, 390
Baluchistan, 374n15
Bamachane, 251
Banas culture, 367
Bandar-i Lingah, 214
Bangkok, 391
Bangkok period, 383
Baqir, Taha, 199, 224
Baram, Uzi, 14
Baramki, D., 331
Bar Kokha Revolt of 135 CE, 306
Bar Yosef, O., 302, 332
Basarabi culture, 135, 137, 138
Basil, Saint, 93n15
Basra, 218
Basra Körfezi (the Gulf of Basra), 212
Basra University Center for Arabian Gulf Studies, 221
Ba'th party, 190, 201, 219
Battle Axe culture, 48
Bauman, Joel, 321
Bauman, Zygmunt, 128, 321
Bayyati, ̒Abd al-Wahhab al-, 200
Beinin, Joel, 308
Beisan, 316
Beit Alpha mosaic, 304
Beit El, 283, 287
Beit She'an, 300, 315–17, 317
Belgrave, Charles, 225–26, 226
Bell, Gertrude, 194–96, 222
Belleten, 181
Belov, A. K., 48–49
Belovodye, 52
Ben-Dov, Meir, 269
Benedict XVI, Pope, 11
Ben-Gurion, David, 290
(p.408) Benvenisti, Meron, 282, 305
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman, 2, 14, 311, 312
Ben-Zvi, Yitzhak, 290
Berindei, Dan, 130, 131
Bernhardsson, Magnus T., 8
Bethlehem, 314
Bezverkhy, V., 59n2
Bhagwanpura, Late Harappan-Painted Grey Ware overlap, 367
Bharata clan, 363
Bibby, Geoffrey, 226
The Bible Unearthed (Finkelstein and Silberman), 318
biblical archaeology. See Israeli biblical archaeology
Biblical Archaeology Review, 313, 316
Big Foot, 54
bilingualism, 357, 361
Bin-Nun, Yoel, 289, 292
Birkot Ghundai, 366
Birzeit Research Review, 340
Birzeit University archaeology program, 332–34;
acceptance of multiethnic nature of Palestine's cultural history, 336–37;
conflict between processually and traditionally trained archaeologists, 341;
direct historical paradigm, 335, 339;
efforts to engage Palestinian intellectuals, 340;
fieldwork requirements, 337;
limited to salvage operations because of legal complications of excavating in occupied territories, 337, 338–39;
processual archaeology, 335;
“refugee camp archaeology,” 334;
research on Ottoman Palestine, 335;
salvage excavations at Tell Jenin, 339;
shut down in 2003, 341;
summer field schools, 338;
Ti'innik study, 335, 339. See also Palestinian archaeology
black-and-red pottery, 367
The Black Book (Pamuk), 163
Black Sea, 71, 72
Black Sea naval fleet, 74, 75
Blavatsky, Helen P., 38, 55
Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism (Ignatieff), 3
Bogazköy, 176
Boia, Lucian, 130
Bolan Pass, 365, 367
Book of Vles, 36, 38, 41, 45, 47, 48
Bopp, Franz, 352
“Borean race,” 39
Borisov, Innokentii, 74
Botai, 364
Bowersock, G. W., 306
Breasted, James Henry, 219
Breckenridge, C., 352
Britain: archaeological fieldwork in newly formed Arab states, 217;
consolidation of control over Arab sheikhdoms, 213;
creation of Arab states out of Ottoman Empire, 217;
creation of state of Iraq, 213, 217–18;
creation of state of Transjordan, 213;
denied Iraqis active participation in archaeology, 194;
establishment of Iraqi Department of Antiquities, 222;
excavations in Iraq, 222;
Exclusive Agreement of 1892, 213;
General Treaty of Peace, 212;
helped foreign nationals to export large quantities of antiquities from Iraq, 196;
political and military presence in Persian Gulf region to secure oil resources, 213;
withdrawal from Persian Gulf, 213, 214
British Council, 333
British Mandate, 327, 331
British Museum, 222
British Oriental Secretary in Baghdad, 194
Bryant, E., 360, 361
Buddhism, 350, 354
Bulgarians, 149
Burebista, 140–41
burials, South and Central Asia: cremation, 366;
fractional, 366;
with horses, 362, 366;
inhumation, 366
Burkhardt, John Lewis, 329
Burma, 383
Burmese, 392
Bush, George W., 12
Byelorussians, 34
Byzantine Empire, 184
Caesarea, 300
Calamita, 80, 82
Caldwell, Robert, 353
Cambodia, 383, 384, 388
Campbell Thompson, Reginald, 222
Camp David Peace Accords, 309
Canaanites, 49, 329
Çankaya, 166
(p.409) Cappadocia, 176
Carpatho-Danubian area, 138, 139
Carpelan, C., 364
Carpi, 147–48
caste endogamy, 355
Catherine II, Greek Project, 75
Caucasian Albania: burial customs of, 113;
Christian Ecclesiastic Writing in, 120;
existence from end of first millennium BC until beginning of seventh century AD, 99;
literary culture among highly ranked administrators, 104;
official seal of chief Christian church inscribed with Middle Persian writing, 105;
relationship with Iran, 105
Caucasian Albania-Lezgistan: History and Modernity (Abduragimov), 101
Caucasian Albanian writing: creation of original Albanian alphabet, 104;
directly ancestral to Udin, 6;
facts of archaeology, 106;
medieval cursive, 108;
testimonies of written sources, 103–6. See also Albanian Book
Caucasian Autonomous Republic of Daghestan, 101
Caucasus, map of, 100
Ceauşescu dictatorship, 128
Celtic ogham writing, 59n4
Celts, habitation in central Turkey, 181
Center for Arabian Gulf Studies, Basra University, 221
Central Asian Seven Rivers (Semirechie) region, as Indo-European homeland, 58
Central World Yeshiva, 287
Centre for Arab Gulf Studies, University of Exeter (renamed Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies), 221
Ceram, C. W., 175
Cernjakhov culture settlements, 149
Cernjakhov find spots, 145
Chalam, K. S. R. V. S., 370
Chalcolithic Banas/Ahar culture, 367
Chalcolithic Vinça culture, 48
Chanhu-daro, 365
chariot races, 374n16
chariot warfare, 374n16
Chelyabinsk region, 46
Chersonesos: centrality to post-Soviet Orthodox revival, 88;
Grecian ruins, 71, 78;
seven martyrs of, 76;
as “Slavic Pompeii,” 71, 72
Chiang Mai, 382
Childe, Gordon, 172–73, 180
Chitral, 366
Chivilikhin, Vladimir A., 37
Chlenova, N. L., 40
Chmykhov, M., 42, 43, 45
The Chronicle of Nestor, 76
Chufut Kale, 82, 86, 90
Chulalongkorn, King, 383–84, 385, 388, 391
Church of the Nativity, 314
civil religion, defined, 13
Claudius Ptolemy, 100
Clement, Saint, 76
Cline, Eric, 317
Cohen-Hattab, Kobi, 321
collective memory, and construction of national identities, 21
College of Judea and Samaria, 282
Colonial Indology, 374n10
colonialist archaeology, 302
Constantine, 75
Constantinople, 231
Corded Ware culture, 48
craniometry, 356
Crawford, Harriet, 228
cremation burials, 366
Crimea, 86;
birthplace of Russian and Ukrainian archaeological traditions, 75;
Byzantine ruins, 77;
“cave cities,” 76;
colonized by Greeks in fifth century BCE, 75;
Islamization, 73;
Kherson-Tauride diocese, 77;
mixed population, 6;
relationship with Ukraine, 74;
as “Slavic Pompeii,” 71;
Tatar khanate of Ottoman Empire before 1788, 74–77
Crimean church archaeology (tserkovnaia arkheologia), 16, 72, 73;
archaeology of Christian legends, 73, 77;
birth of, and Archbishop Innokentii, 77–83;
Imperial Society of History and Antiquity, 83;
monastery in Inkerman cliffs, 80;
monastery in ruins of Chersonesos, 80;
and nationalism, 4, 72;
nineteenth century, 83–86;
Odessa Society for History and Antiquity, 83;
at present, 86–91;
problem of authority over ruins considered to be holy, 86–87;
resurrection of Christian history legitimated Russian expansion into Muslim territory, 80, 83;
(p.410) role in identity formation, 88, 89–90;
study of Christian ruins took priority after Greek War of Independence, 75–76;
Tauride Archival Commission (Tauride Society for History, Archaeology, and Ethnography), 85;
transformation of ruins into relics, 91
Crimean Tatars: decimation and exile after World War II, 73;
and Dormition Monastery, 97n65;
return to Crimea, 6, 73–74, 87, 89–90
Crimean War, 79
Croly, Herbert, 21
Cro-Magnon culture, 49
cross, Christian, 105
Cumhuriyet, 182
Cyril, 76
Cyrillic script, 47
Dacia, post-Roman, 134, 151–52
Dacia Revival International Society, 130
Daco-Roman stage (the Bratei-Ipoteşti-Costişs culture), 136. See also The History of the Romanians (Istoria Românilor) (Niculescu)
Daghestan, 99;
amateur scholars' use of archaeology to build national identity, 4, 5–6;
ethnic group competition for primacy, 6
Daghestano-Nakh languages, 118, 124n6
Daghestanskaya Pravda, 107, 108, 123
Dalokay, Vedat, 166
Dani, Ahmad Hasan, 209
Danilenko, V. N., 44
Dardic language family, 359
Darginian language, 118
Darius I (Darayavuš), 105, 112, 372, 374n9
Darwish al-Miqdadi, 218, 227
Daryaee, Touraj, 209
Dasa people, 363, 365, 374n8
Davidson Centre museum, 320
Dayan, Moshe, 251, 305
Dayanand Saraswati, 354–55
Dead Sea Caves, 306
Dead Sea Scrolls, 256, 301, 310, 320, 342
Decebalus, 142
Demin, V. M., 49, 52–54, 57
“Demin syndrome,” 56
Derbent, 105, 111
Deshpande, M. M., 361
Deutsch-Orient Gesellschaft, 222
Dever, W., 332
Dhavalikar, M. K., 372
Dholavira, 371
D'iakonoff, I. M., 36, 118
Dikshit, K. N., 367
Dilman, Abraham Necmi, 181
Dilmun, 224
Dilmun and Its Gulf Neighbours (Crawford), 228
Dio Cassius, 113
diphthongs, 359
Dir, 366
direct cultural-historical approach, 335, 339
The Discovery of India (Nehru), 353
Diyala region, 222
Dmitri, archbishop of Tauride and Simferopol, 85
Dmitri, archbishop of Tauride and Simferopol, 85
Dnieper River valley, alleged location of Aryan homeland, 41, 44
Dobrogea, 151
Dormition Monastery, 78, 82, 82–83, 86, 88, 90, 97n65
Dravidian culture, 354, 361, 373n3, 375n20
Dravidian languages, 353
Drishadvati, 372
Dubisch, Jill, 97n68
Dudakov, Savely, 50–51
Dumitrasşu, Sever, 146
Durand, E. L., 225
Dutt, Romesh Chunder, 351, 353, 370
Early Iron Age, 59
eastern Caucasian languages, 118
Ebal, Mount, 292
Edessa, 103
Efrat, 284
Egypt, 220
Egypt Exploration Society, 175
Ehrlich, Ze'ev (Zhabo), 284, 287
Ein Geddi, 256, 259
Einhorn, Talia, 310
Ekron inscription, 300
El Al, 252
Elazar Ben-Yair, 256
Elbrus Mountain, 55
Elgin, Lord, 176
Elitzur, Yoel, 283–84, 285–87
Elon, Amos, 304
(p.411) Elpidias, Saint, 93n15
EMI, 252
Empire of the Hittites (Wright), 176
Emre, Ahmet Cevat, 183
Encyclopedia Judaica, 265
ephedra plant, 363, 365
Ephrem, Saint, 93n15
Eretz Yisrael, 314
Ergin, Ann, 183
Eridu, 199, 222
Essay on Comparative Mythology (Müller), 177–78
Essenes in Qumran, 259
Etherias, Saint, 93n15
“Ethnic and Cultural Heritage of Caucasian Albania,” 119–20
ethnic Russians, 34
ethnos, Greek functional definition of, 337
Eti biscuit company, 166
Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 41
Eugene, Saint, 93n15
Eurocentrism, 172
Europe: decreasing hegemony of church and core narratives of Bible, 169;
fascination with the “primitive” and “oriental,” 193;
race central to production of identity, 172;
search for history in Middle East, 193
European narratives, 174–75;
grand civilizational narrative, 175, 186;
identification of Anatolia as the homeland of the Indo-Europeans, 176;
notion of a single ideal source of civilization, 169, 170
European Union: challenge to concept of nation, 22;
and identity formation, 23
Evangelical Christian movements, image of Islam, 11
Evola, Julius, 55
Fahey, John, 209
Failaka Island, 226
al-Fardos (Paradise) Square, Baghdad, 189
Fawcett, Clare, 1, 247
Faysal, King, 189, 192, 195, 222
Feige, Michael, 14
Feldman, Louis, 249
Feodosia, 75
Feofan, bishop of Poltava, 85
Fertile Crescent, 219
Field Museum, 222
Finkelstein, Israel, 318
Finley, Moses, 251
Finno-Ugric, 360, 368
First Danish Expedition to Arabia, 225–26
Flavius Josephus, 2, 249, 253;
clear distinction between Zealots and Sicarii in Masada context, 258, 259;
description of how the people on Masada killed their families, 263;
Masada narrative, 255–56, 311;
mention of spur on the western side of Masada, 270;
no description of “battle” of Masada, 259–60;
Northern Palace mentioned in context of collective suicide, 263;
on Roman siege, 268–69, 270
Flavius Silva, 256
Florinsky, V. M., 58–59
folklore, 352
Foundations in the Dust (Lloyd), 225
fractional burials, 366
Francfort, H.-P., 366
Frankfort, Henri, 198
“Free Dacians”, 143, 144, 147, 148
French archaeology, 384, 392
French Orientalists, 384
French Revolution, 21–22
French School of the Far East (Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient), 384
Freudian theory, 19
Gadjiev, Murtazali, 5
Gamkrelidze, T. V., 36, 59n2
Gandhara, 356
Gandhara Grave culture, 366, 367
Ganga, 371
Ganga-Juma interfluve, 367
Gargars, 119
Gathas, 359
Gaylani, Rashid Ali al-, 223
Gaza, 327, 328
Gellner, Ernest, 11, 23, 350, 351, 373n1
A General Outline of Turkish History (Türk Tarihinin Ana Hatlari), 170
Geneza, 44
Georgia, 6
Georgian script, 108
Gepids, 148
German nationalism, 22, 51
German Romanticism, 195
Geto-Dacians, 137, 138
Ghazi I, King, 222
(p.412) Ghilghilchay defensive wall, 115
Ghosh, A., 367
Gideon Aran, 288
Gill, Dan, 269–70, 270–71
Gilund, 367
Gimbutas, M., 37
Giurescu, Constantin C., 128
Glazunov, Ilya, 40
Glob, P. V., 226
Globa, Pavel, 56–57
Glock, Albert, 10, 306, 327, 332, 334, 337, 338, 341
Glorious Revolution, 21
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 103, 112
Göker, Muzaffer, 182–83
Golan Heights, 309, 310
Golubinka, 91n2
Gomal Grave culture, 367
Gonda, J., 354, 373n3
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 86, 123
Gornung, B. V., 36
Goths, 148, 149, 152, 156n16
Graham, Loren, 97n67
grama, 363
Grand Tour, 306
Greater and Lesser Tunb islands, 206, 209, 213, 216, 221
Greater Romania Party, 129
Greek script, 47
Grinevich, G., 59n2
Gudz'-Markov, A. V., 46, 51–52
Guénon, Réne, 55
Gukasyan, V., 117
Gulf Air, 221
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 216, 221
Günaltay, Semsedin, 184
Gupta, S. P., 369
Gusev, Oleg M., 58
Guseva, Natalia, and Arctic Homeland theory, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45
Gush Emunim: and appropriation of land, 279–81, 282;
attempt to uncover Jewish history of disputed territories, 280–81;
belief that God gave land of Israel to Israelites and their descendants, 278, 280;
Bible as a political text, 281, 288, 289;
and biblical archaeology, 14, 277–78, 289–90;
“born-again landscape,” 283;
campaign to stop Israeli withdrawal from Sinai, 279;
ceased to exist in the mid-1980s, 279;
conflict with Palestinian Arab residents of West Bank, 279;
cultural critique of modern secular Zionism, 283;
interpretation of Bible through mediation of secular Zionism, 288–89;
opposition to Israeli archaeological establishment, 290–93;
relation of nationalism and archaeology, 281, 290;
suggestion for re-Zionization of archaeology, 292;
synthesis of myth with scientific history and archaeology, 286–89;
view of West Bank as Judea and Samaria, 279, 289
Gush Etzion, 284
Guttman, Shmaria, 252–53, 253, 260
Ha'aretz, 266, 271
Haerinck, Ernie, 209
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Areas of Armed Conflict, 310, 338
Haifa, 302
halakhah, 287, 288
Halamish, 284
Hall, H. R., 222
Hamilton, William, 176
Hammurabi, 8, 202
Hamodea, 266
Harappan civilization, 174, 365, 369, 371, 373;
interpreted as Dravidian, 350;
posturban Cemetery H culture, 366–67;
sites, 356
Harmatta, J., 361
Har Megiddo, 317
Hashemite Kingdom, 200
Hassan, Faiq, 199
Hassmann, Henning, 343
Hatzophe, 266
Hatzor, 277
Hebron, 281, 286, 289
Hecataeus of Miletus, 212
Hemphill, B. E., 357
heritage tourism, 312, 315, 322
Herodion, 256
Herzl, Theodor, 302, 310
Hills, Stuart L., 19
Hinduism: Arya Samaj, 354;
increasingly associated with being Indian, 355, 373n7, 374n10
Hinduism, 373n7
Hindu Mahasabha, 355, 374n11
(p.413) Hindu nationalism, 375n21
Hindu Sabha, 355
Hindutva political movement, 15, 18, 370
historical grand narratives, 175, 186
History of the Lezgins, 116–17
The History of the Romanians (Istoria Românilor) (Niculescu), 5, 127–33;
archaeology in, 133–37;
attempts to define concept of “archaeological culture,” 135;
“autochthonous” population presented as civilized, 138;
bad archaeology, 154;
choice of title, 132;
Christianity as testimony of continuity of Latin-speaking indigenous population in post-Roman Dacia, 151–52;
depiction of relations between Dacians and other barbarian peoples, 146;
differences in quality between the volumes and chapters of, 131;
ethnogenesis of Romanians, 135–37, 152–53;
everything belonging to Roman tradition attributed to “Daco-Romans,” 148;
foreigners almost always presented as intruders, 144–46;
interpretation of archaeological cultures, 136, 137–38;
local population after the withdrawal of the Romans from Dacia, 147–52;
metallurgy as exclusively “autochthonous,” 149;
mixed argumentation of knowledge produced in various disciplines, 133;
political organization of paramount importance, 150–51;
published reactions to, 132;
rejection of Thracomania, 130;
social organization of the “Daco-Romans,” 149–50;
subordination of archaeological knowledge to political goals, 154;
survival and romanization of the “Geto-Dacians,” 140–41, 142–44
Hitler, Adolph, 59
Hittite empire, 184
Hittite language, 176, 360
The Hittites in Asia Minor (Sayce), 176
Hittite sun, 9, 15, 164;
changing values for, 165;
chosen to replace swastika as Turkish icon, 178;
first used symbolically on commercial goods, 166;
metaphoric condensation of an entire historico-linguistic thesis, 184;
emergence in 1961 of modern symbolic life, 168;
monument of in Sihhiye Square, 166–67;
monument to with Kocatepe Mosque in background, 167;
restored to Ankara as the emblem of the city, 165, 183;
signification based on politicized colonial discourses, 177–78;
sign of racial affiliations, 181
Hobsbawm, Eric, 50, 350, 351
Hodder, I., 343
Holy Land Experience, Orlando, Florida, 320
Holyland Hotel, model of Jerusalem at, 319, 319–20
Holy Priest Martyrs, 93n15
Hormizd III, Shah, 105
horse: bones, 365, 366, 367;
burials with, 362;
domestication of, 361, 364;
sacrifice, 360
horse-riding, mastered around 2000 BC, 364
House of David, 300
Hrozny, Bedrich, 176
Humann, Karl, 176
Huntington, Samuel, 11
Hurro-Urartian language, 118
Husayn, Sharif, 223
Husri, Abu-Khaldun Sati' al-, 199;
and Arab nationalism, 218, 223;
clash with Bell, 196;
first division of artifacts with a foreign expedition, 198;
first Iraqi director of antiquities, 195, 197, 222;
foundation for an indigenous Iraqi archaeology, 222–23;
key role in Ottoman educational system, 195
Hussein, Kahdim Sharif, 190
Hussein, King, 307
Hussein, Saddam, 8, 192, 216, 221;
manipulation of archaeology, 201–2;
museums as symbols of regime, 201;
toppling of the statue of, 189–90;
use of ancient history to unite country, 201
Husseini, S., 331
“Hyperborea—97,” 52
Hyperborea—a Siberian Homeland, 55
“Hyperborean idea,” 39, 54, 55, 56
Iberia, 104
Ibrahim, Muawiya, 332
Ignatieff, Michael, 3, 21
Iha al-Watana (National Brotherhood Party), 222
Ila Brabani, 372
(p.414) “The Impact of Colonialism and Nationalism in the Archaeology of Thailand” (Shoocongdej), 8
Inan, Afet, 179–80, 184
India: archaeology, 370–71;
Brahman supremacy, 374n10;
census of 1901, 353;
concept of Aryan identity, 349, 350, 354, 370;
majoritarianism and politics of exclusion, 350, 373;
physical anthropology preoccupied with skull types, 356;
quest for mythical Aryan homeland, 20;
relationship between archaeology and nationalism, 4;
religious nationalism, 15, 38–39, 352, 370
“India and Iran: The Confluence of Musical Cultures,” 373
Indo-Aryan language, 349, 353, 355, 358, 359, 360, 368
Indo-Aryans: and early Slavs, 38;
in Swat valley of northernmost Pakistan, 366
Indo-European homeland, 58, 349, 357
Indo-European languages, 173;
areas, 358;
common words for animals, 359;
dispersal, 361–62
Indo-European origins: European confusion over, 172–73;
theories of, 35–38, 40–41, 58, 176
Indo-Evropa, 43
Indo-Iranian culture, 349, 350, 361, 367
Indo-Iranian homeland, 39
Indo-Iranian language(s), 349, 358, 359
Indological scholarship, 352
Indra, 363
Indus plains, intrusive cultures on, 366
inhumation, 366
Inkerman: archaeological and scholarly controversy, 80, 82;
cliff churches at, 76, 78
Inkerman Monastery, 86, 88
Innokentii, Archbishop: and birth of church archaeology, 77–83;
casting of Crimea as holy place of Russian Empire, 78–79;
passion for restoring old monasteries, 79;
Russian Athos program, 84;
use of archaeology to legitimate Russian Church expansion in Muslim areas, 83
intellectual populism, nationalism and, 50–51
Ionitƫă, Ion, 146, 148, 149, 156n16
Iorga, Nicolae, 128, 150
Iran, 9–10;
advertisement of the Aria car, 17;
and Albania, 105;
Arabs believed to be archenemy of, 211;
claims on southern shores of Persian Gulf and its islands since pre-Islamic times, 213;
claims over Bahrain, 214–15;
de facto recognition of Israel, 220;
evidence for horse-drawn chariot warfare in second millennium BC, 362;
growing influence in Persian Gulf region viewed as threat by Arab states, 215;
Iraq War, 211;
Islamic Republic, 11;
name “Persian Gulf” part of national heritage, 221;
no separation of church and state, 13;
self-appointed position of guardian of the Persian Gulf, 213;
study of pre-Islamic national heritages, 16
Iranian archaeology: and nationalism, 4;
rapprochement with the West in recent years, 228;
self-imposed isolation following revolution of 1979, 227;
and Western archaeologists' disregard for name of “Persian Gulf,” 228
Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization, 16, 208
Iranian Ministry of Culture, 207, 208
Iranian Revolution of 1979, 11, 215–16, 227
Iran-Iraq War, 191, 216
Irano-Iraqi Boundary Treaty, 224
Iranology Conference, 209
Iran Tribune, 17
Iraq: American invasion of, 189;
art scene of 1950s, 199–200;
1958 coup, 219;
free-verse movement (al-shi'r al-hurr), 200;
independence from Britain, 222;
invasion of Iran, 216;
invasion of Kuwait, 217;
modern state of established in 1921, 192;
paradigmatic nationalism, 191, 202;
plundering of antiquities of, 190–91;
referred to as Persian Gulf (Al-khalij al-'Arabi), 220;
seat of the Abbassid Caliphate in the ninth century CE, 192;
system of indirect rule by British colonial officials after World War I, 194
Iraqi archaeology: antiquities legislation of 1936, 198, 222;
anti-Westernism in 1930s, 198–99;
avoidance of name “Persian Gulf,” 221, 224;
British control of, 197;
and fight against British encroachment, 8;
independent and sanctioned stages, 199–203;
(p.415) international stage, 192–94;
and national identity, 4, 191, 192;
national or negotiated stage, 194–99
as a political tool during al-Husri's tenure, 197;
scientific justification for government's legitimacy, 191;
stages of, 192;
unified nation and created sense of belonging, 191
Iraqi Department of Antiquities: establishment of, 221;
first Iraqi excavation at ruins of Wasit, 197–98;
independent excavations at Samarra, Wasit, Tell 'Uqair, 'Aqar Quf, Hassuna, Tell Harmal, and Eridu, 224;
Iraqi Institute of Fine Arts, 199
Iraqi National Museum: establishment in 1923, 196;
plundering of, 190–91
Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council, 221
Iraqi Shi'is, 201
Iriniarkh, bishop of Berezovsk, 85
Iron Age, 362
Iron Age Basarabi culture, 137
Islam: disdain for pre-Islamic cultural relics originating during “Jahilliya” in, 16, 331;
encouraging detachment of Muslims from distant past, 16
Islamist Welfare Party (Refah Partisi), 15, 165
Israel: British Mandate, 327, 331;
chronology for, 303;
development towns, 316;
divisions in, 307–9;
fiftieth anniversary of the state, 307;
Government Names Committee, 284;
growth of market economy, 308, 309;
identity determined by state, 308;
Likud governments starting in 1977, 308;
nationalist needs now subsumed by diplomatic and economic needs, 310;
National Park Authority, 315;
“new historians,” 291;
no separation of church and state, 13;
Palestinians as “the Other,” 308;
post-Zionism, 14, 310–11;
religious-secular divide, 309;
return of Sinai to Egypt, 309;
War of Independence (1948), 282, 307;
1956 War, 307;
Six-Day War (1967), 282, 305, 307;
War of Attrition, 307;
Yom Kippur War, 307
Israel Exploration Society, 277
Israeli Antiquities Authority, 309, 315, 316
Israeli Antiquities Law of 1978, 331
Israeli Archaeological Exploration Society, 262, 272
Israeli biblical archaeology, 12;
Beit She'an, 315–17;
central to Israel's “civil religion” during 1950s and 1960s, 277;
comparison of first-and second-stage, 289–90;
consumption of, 285–86;
double irony of second-stage, 293–94;
economic role of, 14–15;
excavations throughout West Bank and Gaza, 338;
focus on sites associated with Bronze and Iron Ages, 302;
helped to maintain belief in unity and to mask divisions, 307;
historical narrative different from that of Zionist movement, 291;
influence of religious narratives on, 14;
Judaization of archaeological sites in the West Bank and Gaza, 342;
lack of criticism of practices in Palestine, 344;
little attention to Islamic eras, 302;
national archaeologists, 291;
and nationalism, 4, 252, 301–7;
and notion that all Jews have a common ancestry, 304;
Operation Scroll, 342;
postnationalist agenda, 300;
and post-Zionism, 309–12;
present day, 315–21;
and reproduction of the ancient map, 281–84;
as resource for tourism, 300, 307;
second phase, 278–79;
used to justify appropriation of Palestine, 302, 305, 327, 328–29
Israeli “Golden Age,” 288
Israeli Jews, in modern Israel, 255
Israeli Ministry of Tourism, 307, 313, 315
Israeli tourism, 313–15;
archaeo-tourism, 319, 321;
Megiddo, 317–18;
miniature Jerusalem, 319–21;
representations of Israel, 313–14;
tours available, 314
Israel Museum, 320
Israel-Palestinian conflict, 10, 342
Ivanov, V. V., 36, 59n2
Izvestiia, 41
Jaffa Gate, 304
Jahilliya, 16, 331
Jains, 350
Jaya Buddha Mahanatha, 390
Jenin, 339
Jeremy, Bishop, 104
Jerusalem, 314, 336
(p.416) Jerusalem, Old City of: control by Jordan, 305;
excavation of, 301
Jerusalem at Chautauqua, New York, 320
Jewish Palestine Exploration Society, 332
Jewish revolt against Rome, 316, 320
“Jewish Underground,” 279
Jilazoun, 283
Joglekar, P. P., 357
Jones, William, 352
Jordanian Provisional Antiquity Law of 1967, 331
Josephus. See Flavius Josephus
Josiah, king of Judah, 317
Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society, 331
Judea, 282
Judean desert caves, 277
Julius Capitolinus, 103
Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi), 165
K. Kekelidze Institute of Manuscripts, Georgian Academy of Sciences, 119–20
Kafiri-Nuristani language family, 359, 366
Kalankatuaci-Dasxuranci, 104, 116–17
Kamennaia Moglia, 43, 45
Kapiton, Saint, 93n 15
Karim Khan Zand, 214
Karka de bet Seloh, 112
Katz, Shaul, 305
Katzover, Benny, 285
Kazakhstan, 364
Kaziev, S., 106
Kennedy, K. A. R., 356, 357
Keppen, P. I., 79
Kerch, 75
Khafajah, 222
Khalidi, Rashid, 308
Al-Khalij al-'Arab (Arabian Gulf), 220, 221
Al-Khalij al-Basra (Gulf of Basra), 219
Khinaman, 365
Khmer, 384, 386, 390, 392
Khorsabad, 222
Khrushchev, Nikita, 74
Khuzestan, 216
Kibbutz Beit Alpha, 304
Kievan Rus', 47, 48
Kifishin, Anatoly G., 43, 45, 49, 54
Kikkuli the Mitannian, 359
The King and I, 383
Kish, 209, 222
Klimov, G. A., 109
Knesset, 309
Kocatepe Mosque, 165, 166
Kochhar, R., 360, 363, 366
Kohl, Philip L., 1, 2, 3, 20, 72, 247, 290, 361
Kohn, Hans, 22
Kola Peninsula, 52, 54, 55
Kook, Rabbi A. I., 287
Korchagin, Viktor I., 40
Koryun, 104
Kosis/Kasik, 113
Kossinna, Gustaf, 51, 154
Koyşay, Hamid Zübeyir, 181
Kozelsky, Mara, 6–7
Krasnosel'tsev, N. F., 84
Kristianovich, Alexander, 85
Kurds, 9, 201
kurgans, 113
Kuril Islands, 58
Kuwait, 213, 216
Lajpat Rai, Lala, 355
Lakian, 118
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C., 366
lance, 362
Landnahme, 144
land-of-Israel studies, 287
language-replacement theory, 357, 370
Lanna, 384, 386
Laos, 383, 384
Laotians, 384
Lapp, P., 332
Lavan (Sheykh Sho'eyb), 206, 209
Lavie, Tzvi, 266
Layard, Austin Henry, 175, 193
Lazar, Metropolitan, 87–88
Lazarev, Y. S., 53
League of Nations, 194, 198
lectionary, 120
Levy, David, 315, 316
Lezgian national calendar, 117
Lezgian National Movement (“Sadval” [Unity] party), 101
Lezgi Gazet, 107
Lezginskiy Vestnik, 107
Lezgis, 99–100;
and claims of Albanian Book, 6, 117–18;
recently divided between Russia and Azerbaijan, 101
Lezgis and the Ancient Civilizations of the Near East: History, Myths, and Stories (Abduragimov), 101
Lezgistan, 101
(p.417) Lezgistandin Habarar, 107
Lezgistan magazine, 106, 116
Likud, 306
“Linguistic Paleontology,” 172
Lişcoteanca, 145
Lithai, King, 392
Livanov, F. V., 85
Living with the Bible (Dayan), 305
Livne, Micha, 270
Lloyd, Seton, 223, 224–25
Lopburi, 386
Lothal, 369
Louvre, 222
Lukacs, J. R., 357
Ma'ariv, 252, 266
Macedonia, 10
Macherus, 256
Magan, 224
Magen, Isaac, 337
Magness, Jodi, 253
Magyars, 149
Majidzadeh, Yousef, 228
Majlis al-Ta'avon al-doval al-Khalij al-̒Arabiya, 216–17
Mala'ika, Naziq al-, 200
Malay states, 384
Mallory, J. P., 365
Maltepe Cigarettes, 166
Mamluk, 331
Marchard, Suzanne, 75
Margiana, 365
Marr, N. Y., 121
Marshall, John, 350, 354
Martin, Saint, 76
Masada, 301;
declared a UNESCO World Heritage center, 249;
Locus 8, 261;
looking from east to west, 253;
looking south, 248;
and the politics of modern archaeology, 251–53;
scientific importance of, 273n 1;
siege ramp, 269, 272;
three levels of Northern Palace, 261, 267
Masada: Herold's Fortress and the Zealot's Last Stand (Yadin), 306
“Masada Complex,” 251, 311–12
Masada excavations, 249–50, 258, 277, 305–6, 309
Masada excavations, and construction of knowledge: “Battle of Masada,” 259–60;
Sicarii versus Zealots, 258–59;
siege ramp, 268–72;
skeletons at locus 8, 260–68
Masada mythical narrative, 2, 254–55;
cornerstone in shaping national and personal identities, 255;
heroic “last stand,” 260;
justification for use of force for political and ideological purposes, 252;
no longer needed for Israeli national consciousness, 311–12;
Yadin's support of, 252–53, 256–57, 272, 306. See also Flavius Josephus
Maskuts, 112
Massagetae, view of as ancestors of Slavs, 58, 59
Mazar, Amihai, 302
Medvedev, Dmitry, 46
Megiddo, 317–18;
Bronze Age Gate, 318
Mehendale, M. A., 359, 368
Mehi, 365
Mehrgarh, 365
Meir, Golda, 311
Melamed, Rabbi Zalman, 287
Melitopol', 43
Menachem Ben-Yehuda, 256
Mesopotamia: crude and reckless digging by Europeans in nineteenth century, 175, 192–93;
golden era of archaeology of 1920s and early 1930s, 222
Mesopotamians, referred to Persian Gulf as Lower Sea, 212
Mesrop Mashtots, 104
Methodius, 76
Middle Eastern archaeology, unbalanced interest in fortified cities, temples, and palaces, 336
Middle Persian language, 104, 105
Mihran, Duke of Ghardman, 105
Mingechaur inscription, 106, 119
Minorskii, V. F., 116
Misra, V. M., 372
Mitannians, 359, 368
Mizrachi, 308–9
modernism, 168
Mohammad, Prophet, 231
Mohammad-Ali Mostafa, 224
Mohammad Mossadiq, 220
Mohenjo-daro excavation, 174, 350, 354, 365
Mon, 384
Mongkut, King, 383, 388, 390
Mongolian interlude, 32
(p.418) Mon script, 390
Montadon, S. N., 79
Moon-Wagon, 105
Moscow Slavic Pagan Community, 48
Mossadegh, M., 9
Mosul, 217
Motherland Party, 167
Mukherjee, B. N., 368
Müller, Max, 177–78
Munda languages, 353, 373n 6
Murmansk region, 54
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, 163
Mustafa Kemal. See Atatürk (Mustafa Kemal)
Mythic Society, Bangalore, 368, 369
Nadi, R. N., 363
Nadir Shah Afshar, 214
Nagorno-Karabagh, 6, 26n 5
Nakhian language, 118
Nakhon Si Thammarat, 386
Namazga VI, 365
Narkis, Uzi, 251
Narrow Pass, Black Mountain (Ceram), 175
Nasb al-Hurriyah (The Monument of Freedom) (Salim), 200
Nash Sovremennik, 41
Nasledie predkov, 45
Nasser, Gamal 'Abd al-, 200, 219, 220
Nasserism, 219
nation, role of past in construction of, 351
National Club of the Old Russian Battle Wrestling, 48
national/cultural trauma, 20
national cultures, constructed by intellectuals, 351–52
National Geographic Society (NGS): Atlas of the World, 206, 207;
change of name of Persian Gulf, 206–11;
modified version of the map of the Persian Gulf region, 210
National Iranian American Council, 209
nationalism: Arab, 217–21;
and archaeology, 3, 4;
and archaeology, in Azerbaijan, 4, 5–6;
began in Western Europe as popular sovereignty movement, 22;
and Crimean church archaeology, 4, 72;
German, 51;
Hindu, 375n 21;
and intellectual populism, 50–51;
and Iranian archaeology, 4;
and Israeli biblical archaeology, 4, 252, 301–7;
modern ethnic, and racism, 50;
new forms of, 1–2, 3, 21–24;
and Palestinian archaeology, 4, 328, 342–43;
paradigmatic nationalism, 191, 202;
in post-Soviet countries, 3, 101;
religious nationalism, 11–18, 38–39;
in response to colonialism and the study of archaeology, 379;
and Romanian archaeology, 3;
in Thailand, 380, 385–86, 391–93;
Ukrainian, 3, 7, 20, 31–32, 36, 42–47;
and use of archaeology as a basis for truth-claims about the ancient origins of the nation, 278. See also Russian ethnic nationalism
Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology (Kohl and Fawcett), 1, 2, 3, 20, 247
National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos, 88
National Republican Party of Russia, 59
Natsheh, Yousef Said al-, 320
Natsionalist, 59
Natufians, 49
Nature, 269
Nauka i religiia (Science and Religion), 52
Nazareth, 314
Nazi Afrika Korps, 254
Nazis, 45, 55, 56
Nazi swastika, 59
Nebuchadnezzar, 8
Nebuchadnezzar II, palace of, 202
Negritos, 384
Nehru, Jawaharlal, 352, 353, 373n 2
Neolithic revolution, 42
neo-Nazism, 7, 50, 59
neo-paganism: in former Soviet Union, 7, 15, 43, 46, 48;
myths, 54
Netzer, Ehud, 262, 265–66, 271
Neve Tsuf, 284
new nationalism, 21–24
The New Nationalism (Snyder), 21, 22
New Russian Calendar, 82
New Russia University, 83
“new Soviet people,” 33
New Stone Age, 171
Niculescu, Gheorge Alexandru, 5
Nineveh, 175, 222
Nineveh and Its Remains (Layard), 193
Nizami Ganjevi, 115
nomenklatura, 129
Nord-West Club, 56
Novgorodov, 55
Nysa-Scythopolis, 316
(p.419) Observer, 250
Odessa Herald, 78
Odessa Society of History and Antiquity, 77, 85
Old Slavic realm, 58, 59
Olivet, Fabre d' 39
Olteanu, Ştefan, 132
Oman, 213, 215, 216
oral history, often confined to the local level, 330
Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 222
origin narratives: complicity with categorization and hierarchical ranking of races, 185–86;
Western, 169
Orod, King, 103
Orthodox Antiquities of Tauride (Pravoslavnye drevnosti Tavrike: Sbornik materialov po tserkovnoi arkheologii), 87–88
Oslo negotiations, 279, 341–42
Osmanov, Nariman O., 107
Ottoman Empire: British creation of Arab states out of, 217;
downfall of, 194, 317;
increased presence in Persian Gulf, 212, 214;
origin myths, 184
Ottoman Palestine: archaeology of alien from mainstream historical archaeology, 336;
ethno-archaeological research addressing site-formation processes, 335
Oxford University, 222
Oz, Amos, 299, 322
Pahlavi, Reza, 209
Pahlavi kings, 372
Painted Grey Ware (PGW), 367
Painted Grey Ware Hastinapur, 367
Palestina Secunda, 316
Palestine: adoption of idea that Palestinians are descendants of the Canaanites, 342;
argument of population by proto-Slavs, 49;
British Mandate antiquities laws used to confiscate land, 331;
colonization by Britain, 328;
disdain for pre-Islamic history, 16;
establishment of state of Israel on larger part of, 328;
ethnic cleansing, 328;
growing appreciation for ethnographic heritage, 343;
indeterminateness of national identity, 308, 327;
intifada of 1987, 10;
Israeli occupation, 327;
Jewish nationalists in, 304;
need for adoption of antiquities policy, 343;
second intifada, 341–42;
threat of Nazi invasion of, 254;
West Bank and Gaza Strip, 328
Palestine Exploration Fund, 175, 329
Palestine Hotel, 189
Palestine Liberation Organization, 307
Palestinian Arabs, 279
Palestinian archaeologists: class-consciousness of younger generation, 336;
earned graduate degrees from universities in the United States and Europe, 333, 337
Palestinian archaeology: attempt for relevance to national struggle without compromise to professional integrity, 326–27;
challenges and difficulties, 337–41;
controlled by Israeli-run Department of Antiquities, 337;
emergence of new tradition, 332–37;
fieldwork shaped political dimensions, 334;
after the first intifada, 341–43;
goal of recognizing the multiethnic nature of Palestine's history, 330;
interdisciplinary team of archaeologists, 333;
Israeli-run Department of Antiquities controlled excavation permits in the West Bank, 337, 338;
liberationist archaeology, 10–11;
looting and destruction of archaeological record, 342;
and national identity, 4, 328, 342–43;
need for, 327–30;
need for archaeological preservation vs. needs of Palestinians to expand, 339;
obstacles faced, 10;
official repression of, 10;
and politics, 326–27;
post-intifada nationalism, 342–43;
processual archaeology, 333, 335;
shift from inquiry into monumental sites and centers of power to villages, 335–36;
stunted for years following 1948 war, 331–32;
in suspension as long as Palestinian nationhood remains unrealized, 342;
traditional association of with Western colonialism, 330–32, 337, 340;
ultranationalist phase, 24
Palestinian Authority, 279, 308, 341
Palestinian-Israeli conflict, 10, 342
palimpsests, 120
Pamiat' (Chivilikhin), 37
Pamuk, Orhan, 163
Papacosteau, Şerban, 132
Parpola, A., 364, 365, 372
(p.420) Parthenon/Elgin Marbles, 310
Parthian monuments, in Iran, 16
Pascu, Ştefan, 128, 132, 134
Pasha, Yasin, 195
past, nature of, 20
Pathak, V. S., 369
Patnaik, A., 370
peasant societies, perception of history and identity in, 330
Pelasgians, 37, 47, 49
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, 215
People's Front for the Liberation of Oman, 215
perestroika, 32, 123
Periodos Ges, 212
Peroz, 105
Persian Gulf festival, 208
Persian gulf (Persikos kolpos): and Arab nationalism, 217–21, 229–30;
British in, 212–13, 214;
change of name, and National Geographic Society, 206–11;
common name for body of water between Iran and Arabian Peninsula, 212;
debate over name, 9–10;
increased Ottoman presence in, 212, 214;
Iran and, 213, 215, 221;
linked Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula to India and the Far East, 220;
referred to as Lower Sea by Mesopotamians, 212;
use of other names for in archaeological literature, 221–29
Persian Gulf wars of 1990–1991 and 2003, 201, 217
Persians, 219
Petrie, William Matthew Flinders, 306, 329
Petukhov, Y., 59n 2
Phaestos Disc, 122–23
Phayao, 386
Philistines, 49
Phoenicians, 49
Phongsawadan, 382, 383, 388
Phra Phai Luang, 390
Phra Ruang dynasty, 386, 391
Phrygian era, 184
Piatigorsk Center of Youngsters' Tourism, 56
Pillars of Hercules, renamed Jabal al-Tariq (Gibraltar), 231
Pirak, 365, 367
The Pirate Coast (Belgrave), 225
Pirousan, M. A., 105
Pittard, Eugene, 181
Plutarch, 113
“Polar hypothesis,” 39
Pontic-Caspian Steppe, 360, 364
Pontic region, 38, 43
Popa, Radu, 132
Popular Front for the Liberation of the Arabian Gulf (Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf), 215
post-Soviet countries: ethnonationalist values in all non-Russian republics, 33;
national identity crisis, 31;
neo-paganism, 7, 15, 43, 46, 48, 54;
relationship between archaeology and nationalism, 3, 101
post-Zionism, 310–11
Potts, D. T., 228
Prehistoric Migrations in Europe (Childe), 173
President Parliament Government, 56
Prideaux, F. P., 225
processual definition of archaeology, 333, 335, 341
The Promise of American Life (Croly), 21
Protase, Dumitru, 142, 147–48, 151–52, 156n 15, 156n 20
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 49
Proto-Indo-European, 359, 360, 364
Proto-Kartvelian, 360
Pumpelly, Raphael, 178
Punjab, 355
Purim demukafin (Purim of walled cities), 286
Putin, Vladimir, 46
Qaboos bin-Said, Sultan, 215
Qajars, 214
Qasim, Abd al-Karim, 192, 200
Qasir Hisham, 331
Qatar, 213, 216, 225
Qawasim, 214
Qeys (Kish), 206
Quarterly of the Department of Antiquity, 331
Qumran Caves, 310
Qumran sect, 258, 259
Rabin, Yitzhak, 309
race: Aryans and, 355–57;
central to European identity, 172;
in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, 355
racialist science, 355–56
(p.421) racism, embedded in Aryan idea, 56–57
Ramallah, 283, 285, 342
Ram Khamhaeng, King, 383, 391
Ram Khamhaeng inscription, 383, 386–87
Ranade, Ashok, 373
Rao, S. R., 369
Ras al-Khaimah, 213
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), 374n 11
Ratnagar, Shereen, 7, 15
Razorenov, F., 40
recruited archaeology, 252
refugee camp archaeology, 334
religious nationalism: and archaeology, 11–18;
in India, 15, 38–39;
persuasiveness of, 11–12, 15
Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India (Van Der Veer), 11
Remzi Aguz Arik, 164
Reşit Galip, 172
retroflexion, 360–61
RgVeda, 41, 354, 356, 357, 359, 360, 362–64, 371, 372
Rice, Michael, 228
Rikin Gaf, 107
“The Rise of the Hittite Sun: A Deconstruction of Western Civilization from the Margin” (Shaw), 9
Rishon LeZion, 322
Risley, H. H., 353
Rizvanov, R., 108, 116, 117
Rizvanov, Z., 108, 116
Robinson, Edward, 306, 318, 329
Rodina, 41
Roman Empire: 66–73;
Jewish revolt against, 255;
siege of Masada, 268–69, 270
Romania, 23;
alternative high school history textbooks, 129;
Democratic Convention government, 129;
Social Democratic Party, 129
Romanian Academy, 128, 129, 130
Romanian archaeology: and nationalism, 3;
official history uses archaeological evidence to build ethnic pedigree, 5;
as a provider of historical information when better sources are missing, 133–35;
traditional culture historical archaeology, 154
Romanic stage (the Ipoteşti-Cândeşti-Botoşana-Hansca-Filiaş culture), 136
Rommel, Erwin, 254
Roosevelt, Theodore, 21
Roshwald, Aviel, 22
Rowan, Yorke, 320
Roy, Ram Mohan, 356
Runes, 47
Russia: amateur scholars' promotion of pseudoscience, 7;
anti-Communist movements of late 1980s, 32;
crisis in national identity in post-Soviet era, 31;
damaging of folk culture by modernization in Soviet era, 33;
earliest written records in, 47;
ethnic Russians divided by new national borders, 34;
imperial policy regarding Tatars, 75;
loss of “elder brother” image, 34;
1833 nationality platform, 75;
neofascist groups, 7;
neo-paganism, 7, 15, 46, 48, 50;
philhellenism, 75;
proto-Indo-European homeland hypothesis, 40–41;
threatened by demands of ethnic minorities, 34. See also Russian ethnic nationalism
Russian Academy of Sciences: Institute of Archaeology, 53;
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, 40;
Institute of Russian History, 41
Russian All-People Movement, 44
“Russian Athos,” 78, 82, 84
Russian cosmism, 54
Russian ethnic nationalism: anti-Western and anti-American attitudes, 37;
archaeology and, 50–57;
Aryan homeland theory, 20, 32, 41;
Asia Minor homeland idea, 37;
attempt to impose imperial identity on ethnic Russians, 34, 35;
attempt to isolate Ukrainians from Aryanism, 45–46;
attempt to prove Slavic prehistoric achievements through archaeology, 51;
Balkan homeland idea, 36, 37;
fascination with North, 57;
glorification of prehistoric site of Arkaim, 52;
identification of Indo-Europeans with Slav-Russes, 37;
Indo-European homeland hypotheses, 36–38;
isolationism, 57–58;
linking of Russians with “Aryan” identity, 57–58, 368;
Pontic-Caspian steppe homeland idea, 36;
proto-Indo-European homeland hypothesis, 40–41;
search for ancestors who invented earliest writing system, 47;
swastika and, 59. See also Arctic Homeland myth
(p.422) “Russian issue,” 31, 32–34
Russian Messianism, 58
Russian Orthodox Church: influence on study of the past, 6, 7, 15–16;
initiation of archaeological research and restoration in Crimea, 72;
involvement in Chersonesos, 88–89;
marginalized under Soviet regime, 33;
penetration into Russian scientific thought, 97n67;
perspective on role of archaeology, 87–88;
splintering of along national lines, 90;
view of archaeology as contribution to faith, 73, 88;
view of Crimea as holy place, 73
Russky Revansh, 41
Russo-Turkish wars, 75
Al-Ruwad (The Pioneers), 199
Rybakov, Boris A., 37, 38, 40, 41, 48
sacredness, 13
Sadat, Anwar, 307
Sadeq Khalkhali, 216
Sadeq Rouhani, 216
Sadval, 107
“Sadval” (Unity) party, 101
Safar, Fuad, 199, 224
Safavids, 213
Saint Vladimir Church, 89
Saivism, 354
Sakae, viewed as ancestors of Slavs, 58, 59
Saladin, 317
Salam Arif, Colonel Abd al-, 200
Salim, Jewad, 199–200
Salman of Bahrain, Sheikh, 226
Samaria, 282, 332
Samaria Seminary, 292
Samur, 107
Sanas, prince of Mushur, 115
Sanesan, King, 112
Sangkhalok ceramic, 388
Sanskrit, 390;
arya in, 349;
comparison with European languages, 352;
early, 359;
member of Indo-Aryan group, 357;
retroflexion, 360;
and Thai alphabet, 390
Sanskrit studies, 371
Sarasvati basin, 372
“Sarasvati” valley archaeology, 371
Sarmatian find spots, 145
Sarmatians, viewed as ancestors of Slavs, 58
Sasanids, 16, 104, 105
Saudi Arabia, 216;
Department of Antiquities, 231
Sᾰvescu, Napoleon, 130
Sawt al-Iraq (Voice of Iraq), 197
Sayce, Archibald Henry, 176
Sayyab, Badr Shakir al-, 200
Schumacher, Gottlieb, 318
science, and ideological struggles, 19
Scythia, 76
Scythians: culture, 138;
view of as ancestors of Slavs, 39, 58
Sea of Galilee, 314, 315
Second Turkish Historical Congress, 179, 180, 182
Seetzen, Ulrich, 329
Seid Lake, 53
Seljuks, 184
“Seltçuks,” 181
Semito-Arab homeland, 219
Sephardic Jews, 308
Sepphoris/Zippori, 300, 322
Sevastopol, 80
Shahanshah Kavad, 115
Shahdad, 365
Shanidze, A. G., 109, 117
Shanks, Hershel, 315–16
Shan states, 383, 384
Shapira, Anita, 252
Shapur II, 103, 104
Sharjah, Sheikh of, 213
Sharma, R. S., 363, 367
Shastri, A. M., 372
Shavit, Ya'acov, 251
Shaw, Wendy, 7, 9
Shcherbakov, V., 59n2
Shechem (Nablus), 281, 289, 292
Shikhsaidov, A. R., 116
Shiloh, 283
Shilov, Yuri A., 41, 42–45
Shipman, P., 374n12
Shnirelman, Victor, 4, 7, 368
Shoocongdej, Rasmi, 8
Shrimali, K. M., 360
Siam, name change to Thailand in 1939, 392
Sibri, 365
Sibson Panna, 384
Sicarii, 255–56, 273n3
Silberman, Neil Asher, 249, 302, 305, 306, 307, 316
Simon (son of Giora), 258
(p.423) Sinai, artifacts of, 309–10
Singh, S., 372
Sinhalese, 360
Sintashta, 364
Siri Island, 214
Skurlatov, V., 49, 59n2
“Slavic-Aryanism,” 38
Slavic ethnogenesis, 39–40
Slavic pagan writing, and its “destroyers,” 46–50
Slav-Russes, 35
“Slav-Scythians,” 37
Smith, George, 175
Smith, Sidney, 222
Snyder, Louis, 21, 22
Soat al-Bahrain (Voice of Bahrain), 225
social Darwinism, and modern ethnic nationalism and racism, 50
Society for the Protection of Nature, 265
Society for the Study of Eretz Israel and Its Antiquities, 265
Solomon's Stables, 318
“Solution of the Alphabet of the Caucasian Albanians” (Umarov), 121
Soma, 363
Somasena, 372
Somnath, demolishment of ancient ruined temple at, 350
Songkwae, 391
South Asia: expansion of European control, 381;
hill-tribes, 384;
second-millennium regional cultures bear traces of immigrant groups, 368
Soviet Union: damaging of Russia on folk culture during modernization, 33;
effect of disintegration on study of remote past, 3;
marginalization of Russian Orthodox Church, 33;
repression of archaeological study with a nationalist component, 4. See also post-Soviet countries
Sparreboom, M., 374n16
Spinei, V., 156n10
Sraluang, 391
Sredni Stog, 364
Srichum temple, 391
Srisatchanalai, 391
St. Louis World's Fair, Jerusalem, 320
St. Petersburg, renamed Leningrad, 231
Stalin, Joseph, 73
Starostin, S. A., 118
Stejaru, 145
Strabo, 139
Strobel, Karl, 140
A Study of Indo-Aryan Civilization (Havell), 353
Suceveanu, Alexandru, 139
Sukhothai Historical Park, 395
Sukhothai inscription, 383, 388–89, 389, 390, 391
Sukhothai state, 391, 392, 393–94
Sumer, 224
Sumerians, 42, 43, 53, 171
sun, within context of Indo-European and Aryan identity, 177–78
Sun-Language theory: alternative to Western schemata for origin and categorization of languages, 177;
and Aryans as Turks, 181;
postulated that root language spread through migration of Central Asian Turks, 180;
reduced rhetoric by end of World War II, 182
Surkotada, 375n22
Susloparov, Nikolai Z., 47
sviatyni (“holy items”), 73
swastika: aimed at Star of David, 59;
rehabilitation of, 59;
as Turkish icon, 178
Swat valley, 366
Sylenko, Lev, 43
Syria: evidence for horse-drawn chariot warfare in the second millennium BC, 362;
Western expeditions in, 222
Ta'anach, 332
Talmud, 288
Tamnan, 382, 383
Tanker War of 1984–1988, 216–17
Tarikh al-Umma al-̒Arabiyya (History of the Arab Nation) (al-Miqdadi), 219
Tariq ibn Ziyad, 231
Tartaria, 48
Tauride Archival Commission (Tauride Society for History, Archaeology, and Ethnography), 85, 86–87
Tavium, 176
Tel Aviv, 322
Tel Beit She'an, 315–16
Tel Dan, 300
Telegin, D., 43–44
Tell Agrab, 222
Tell al-Sultan, 334
(p.424) Tell Asmar, 222
Tell el-Hesi, 329
Tell el-Mutesellim, 318
Tell Jenin, 339
Telloh, 222
Tel Miqne, 300
Temple Mound, 320
Teodor, Dan G., 150
tessera, 164, 186
Texier, Charles, 176
Thai alphabet, 390, 391
Thai archaeology: emphasis on Sukhothai city and Thai kings, 386–88, 391;
evidence of Khmer influence, 390;
first Thai inscription, 394;
under government control, 380, 392;
historical approaches as the mainstream, 382;
impact of colonialism versus the impact of nationalism, 380, 388–91;
methodology, 392;
and nationalism, 4, 8, 380, 386
Thailand: Antiquarian Society (or Boran Kadi Samosorn), 384;
Chinese immigration into, 385, 386;
Chinese nationalism in, 392;
comprises various ethnic groups and peoples with multicultural backgrounds, 380, 393;
concept of “nation, religion, and King,” 391;
Fine Arts Department of the Ministry of Education, 392;
historiography, 382, 389, 392;
major states in late thirteenth century, 387;
only Southeast Asian constitutional monarchy, 380;
perceptions of past, 382–85;
ruling elites' denial of dominance of Khmer influence, 390;
Siam Society, 384
“Thailand for the Thai,” 386
Thai language, 380
Thai nationalism, 380;
and archaeology, 4, 8, 380, 386;
conquest ideology, 392;
emergence in response to Western colonialism, 393;
era of military nationalism, 385–86;
ideology of conquest, 392;
role of archaeology in, 386;
Thai nation-state, 385, 393;
Thai “race,” 380, 392–93;
twentieth-century, 391–93
Theodorescu, Rᾰzvan, 128
Theravada Buddhism, 386
Third Turkish Historical Congress, 179, 182–3
“Thracomania,”, 130, 131
Thutmose III, 317
Ti'innik, 335, 338
Tilak, Bal Gangadhar, 38, 41
Torah, 292
Torop, V., 59n2
tourism: archaeology for the sake of, 316;
archaeo-tourism, 300, 319, 321;
heritage tourism, 312, 315, 322. See also Israeli tourism
Tower of David (Migdal Da'vid), 304–5
Trajan, Emperor, 76
Trdat (Tiridat), 103
Trigger, Bruce G., 302, 329, 330
Tripolye culture, 37, 42, 45, 48, 59 n 3
“Tripolyte alphabet,” 47
Trubachev, Oleg N., 37, 38
Trucial sheikhdoms, 213
The True History of the Russian People, 32
Tübingen Atlas von Vorderasiataische Archäologie, 227–28
Turkestan, 59
Turkish Hearth organization, 170
Turkish Historical Commission (Türk Tarihi Heyeti), 170
Turkish Historical Society, 168
Turkish Historical Thesis, 9, 170–77;
antecedence of Eastern history, 171–72;
Aryan homeland as originary locus of Indo-Europeans, 172;
attempt to link Sumerians with Anatolia, 178;
conflation of people of Indo-European and Turkish narratives, 173–74;
continuous narrative of Turkic habitation in Central Asia, 178;
drew on European excavations in Mesopotamia, 175;
narrative framework of archaeologically and linguistically provable migrations, 176;
reduced rhetoric by end of World War II, 182;
subsumed Sumerian, Etruscan, and Hittite languages under “Turkish” linguistic category, 174
Turkish language theory. See Sun-Language theory
Turkish Linguistic Society, 168
Turkish Republic: debate concerning secularism and Islam, 165;
denial of ethnic diversity of peoples, 9;
educational histories produced after 1930, 170–71;
emergence of a countersign to Hittite sun, 185;
(p.425) government change to centrist coalition, 165;
institution of, 186n1;
modern identity built within context of resistance to European incursion, 168;
relationship between archaeology and nationalism, 4;
resistance to colonialism, 168;
secularism, 185;
solar disk as symbol of state-controlled Eti (Hittite) Bank, 182
Turkmenistan, 178, 365
“Two Fragments of Scientific Falsifications” (Z. Rizvanov), 116
Udi, 100, 120
Udins, 6, 100, 119, 124n6
Ugro-Finnic linguistic family, 173
Ukraine, 23, 34, 86;
1991 declaration of independence, 86;
neo-paganism, 43;
relationship with Crimea, 74
Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC), 90
Ukrainian National Assembly, 44
Ukrainian nationalism, 42–47;
amateur scholars' promotion of pseudoscience, 7;
and archaeology, 3;
Arctic Homeland myth, 31–32, 36;
Aryan homeland idea, 43, 44;
“Aryan idea,” 20, 32;
search for ancestors who invented earliest writing system, 47;
search for roots among Vedic Aryans, 44
Ukrainian Native Faith, 43
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), 90
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP), 90
Ukrainian Self Defense, 44
Ulfilas, 152
Ulmeni, 145
Ultraorthodox Jews, 288
Ulus, 166
Umarov, A., 121
UNESCO, 208
Union of the Veneds, 59n2
United Arab Emirates, 213, 214, 216
United Nations: Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, 211;
Resolution 598, 216
United States: Persian Gulf oil interests, 213;
pro-Israel foreign policy, 341
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 222
Upton, Dell, 312
Ur, 222
Urals, southern, viewed as second Aryan homeland, 52
Urnayr, King, 104
Uvarov, A. S., 75
Uvarov, S. S., 75
Vachaghan III the Good-Honourable, 105
Vache II, King, 105
Vaishnavism, 354
Vajiravudh, King, 385, 391
Valerian, Emperor, 103
Van Der Veer, Peter, 11, 12, 352
Vats, M. S., 367
Vedas: as the fount of Hinduism, 370;
as source of all knowledge, 354
Vedic Aryans, 354
Vedic Sanskrit, 357–58
Vedic soma, 365
Verkhniy Chiryurt, Daghestan, 119
Via Maris, 317
Viespeşti, 145
Viet Nam, 383
Virchow, Rudolf, 374n12
Vitiaz?Publishing House, 40
Vladimir, Saint: baptism, 76, 79, 88, 91, 91n18;
baptistery in honor of, 89;
legend of as center of Russian Orthodox identity in Black Sea region, 76–77
Vulpe, Alexandru, 133, 135, 136, 139–40, 154
Waddell, L. A., 176
Walimbe, S. R., 357, 369
war chariot, introduction of, 361
Warka, 222
warrior aristocracies, rise of, 362
warrior graves, 366, 367
Wasit, capital of Iraq during the Ummayyad dynasty in the eighth century CE, 198
West Bank: Israeli archaeological excavations in, 309;
occupation by Israel, 327, 328
West Bank settlers: in conflict with Israeli public and most of Israeli academia, 293;
hikes on the contested ground, 285;
“Judaizing” of the land, 283–84
Western archaeologists, use of “Arabian Gulf,” 228, 231
(p.426) Western colonialism: association of archaeology with in Palestine, 330–32, 337, 340;
historical archaeology of, 336;
and Thai nationalism, 393
Western origin myths, 169, 177
“Western Scholarship and the Silencing of Palestinian History” (Whitelam), 336
Wichitwathakan, Luang, 392
Wirth, Herman, 55
Woolley, Leonard, 175, 196–97
Wright, William, 176
Xenopol, Alexandru D., 128
Yadin, Yigael, 2, 289, 291;
argument for many groups of people in Masada, 258–59;
assumption that battles occurred at Masada, 260;
avoidance of term Sicarii to describe Masada rebels, 258;
and biblical archaeology, 289, 291;
book on Masada, 254;
excavations at Masada, 249–50, 258, 277, 305–6, 309, 311;
ideological-political statements, 251;
interpretations for Masada that supported mythical narrative, 252–53, 256–57, 272, 306;
search for evidence of Solomon's empire in Megiddo, 318;
on siege ramp, 270–71;
statements about skeletons in locus 8, 262–68
Yaraliev, Y. A., 101, 103, 107, 108, 109, 118–19, 123
Yathrib, renamed Medinat al-Nabi, 231
Yazdigird II, 104
Yediot Aharonot, 266
Yishuv, 252
Yugoslavia, disintegration of, 22
Za russkoe delo, 34, 58
Zavtra, 46
Zayadine, Fauzi, 332
Zdanovich, G. B., 46
Zealots, 254, 255, 258–59
Zemplin cemetery (Slovakia), 146
Zertal, Adam, 292
Zharnikova, S. V., 40–41
Ziadeh-Seely, Ghada, 10, 16, 24
Zincirli Medrese, 71, 90, 176
Zionism: historical narrative, 291;
and Jewish biblical archaeology, 252, 281, 289–90, 304;
methods of land acquisition, 288;
modern political, 302;
and mythical tale of Masada, 249, 254;
search for validation of moral claim to land, 251;
and settlers in Palestine, 289, 304;
tying of Jews as historically constituted group of people to land of state of Israel, 280, 299
Zoroaster, 52
Zoroastrianism, 104, 105, 359