This chapter explains why and how biodiversity changes based on research of species and species richness on Haminanluoto, an island in the easternpart of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. The composition of the bird community on Haminanluoto has changed dramatically; especially noteworthy is the increase in the numbers of large-bodied species such as swans, geese, ducks, and gulls. In contrast, small-bodied species, waders and passerines, have declined. The chapter first considers the fate of large-bodied species and why the geographical distributions of beetles and butterflies on Haminanluoto are shifting due to human-caused climate change. It shows that species may track changing environmental conditions by shifting their geographical ranges or by adapting to new conditions and concludes by discussing the current rate of species extinctions.
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