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Building a New Educational StateFoundations, Schools, and the American South$
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Joan Malczewski

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780226394626

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2017

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226394763.001.0001

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“There Are at Least Two Souths”

“There Are at Least Two Souths”

Chapter:
(p.114) Chapter Three “There Are at Least Two Souths”
Source:
Building a New Educational State
Author(s):

Joan Malczewski

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226394763.003.0004

Chapter Three explores the unique geography, demographics, and political economy in North Carolina and in Mississippi and argues that differences between the two states required that foundations develop an array of institutional arrangements across the South. This precluded the ability of foundations to control entirely the process of educational reform, but gave them considerable power through collaboration. Governor Charles Aycock in North Carolina sought to collaborate with northern foundations beginning in 1901 to promote extensive reform of education and governance in the state, leading to decades of education progress. Governor James Vardaman was the first of many state politicians to deny educational opportunity to the state’s rural blacks and limit collaboration with northern foundations, limiting reform in rural black communities for decades. The political and institutional contexts of the two states meant that foundations would need to develop forms of interstitial collaboration that tailored programs to each region, resulting in a reform dynamic that granted differential power to the state, foundations, interest groups, and rural black citizens who participated in it.

Keywords:   Charles Brantley Aycock, James Yadkin Joyner, interstitial collaboration, education reform, James Vardaman

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