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Building a New Educational StateFoundations, Schools, and the American South$
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Joan Malczewski

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780226394626

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2017

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226394763.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 19 October 2021

“Organize in Every Community”

“Organize in Every Community”

(p.74) Chapter Two “Organize in Every Community”
Building a New Educational State

Joan Malczewski

University of Chicago Press

Chapter Two explores the work of rural black reformers, particularly the Jeanes Teachers. Foundations sought enhanced governance capacity at the local level, especially in rural black communities where the Jeanes Teachers were the de facto superintendents of rural black schools. This chapter argues that the teachers were also state builders, who collaborated with foundations and their agents to strengthen the organization and administration of local communities in a Faustian bargain that had the potential to expand black education opportunity, but in a segregated and unequal system. Foundation efficacy depended upon black participation, which existed within narrowly defined parameters and varied by state and locale. The reform dynamic, including rural blacks, illustrate both the strength of decentralization to education innovation and implementation, and the formal role of black teachers in organizing their communities to meet the needs of the 20th Century. While the claim that the black community had a formally defined role in policy development would be an overstatement, schooling helped to promote expanded political opportunities, organizational strength, and shared beliefs in the community in some areas of the South, and relatively greater opportunities for black reformers to promote community goals.

Keywords:   Jeanes Teachers, Jeanes Fund, segregation, political development, black teachers

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