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The Gender Impact of Social Security Reform$
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Estelle James, Alejandra Edwards, and Rebeca Wong

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780226392004

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226392028.001.0001

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(p.215) Chapter Nine Conclusion
The Gender Impact of Social Security Reform

Estelle James

Alejandra Cox Edwards

Rebeca Wong

University of Chicago Press

This concluding chapter summarizes the findings of the study. The empirical investigations and simulations show that women who work in the formal labor market have their own retirement saving accounts in the new systems. For many it is the first time they have had savings of their own. These accumulations and the pensions that they finance are smaller than those of men due to lower lifetime employment, earnings, and contributions, as well as earlier normal retirement age. However, because they tend to be low earners, women are recipients of net public transfers that raise their monthly and lifetime benefits. As a result, pension income tends to replace a higher proportion of average annual earnings for women than for men, especially for low earners.

Keywords:   women, pensions, retirement income, retirement savings, pension income

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