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Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record$
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Warren D. Allmon and Margaret M. Yacobucci

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780226377445

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226377582.001.0001

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The Stages of Speciation: A Stepwise Framework for Analysis of Speciation in the Fossil Record

The Stages of Speciation: A Stepwise Framework for Analysis of Speciation in the Fossil Record

(p.121) Chapter Four The Stages of Speciation: A Stepwise Framework for Analysis of Speciation in the Fossil Record
Species and Speciation in the Fossil Record

Warren D. Allmon

Scott D. Sampson

University of Chicago Press

Little standardization of method exists for studies of speciation using fossils, and this makes relative frequency of patterns and processes very difficult to judge. Although one or two specific causal mechanisms are often invoked as the key factor influencing speciation, rarely is it made explicit how this influence has occurred. These problems are important in paleontology, where actual events and processes cannot be directly observed. It may be helpful to divide speciation into its components so that we can try to identify exactly where and when different changes occur. Four elements appear to be common to all: (1) isolated populations must form, becoming separate from parent populations; (2) these populations must persist in isolation, neither going extinct nor merging with the parental population by interbreeding; (3) these populations must diverge (become differentiated) genetically from the parent such that they will maintain their separate evolutionary status and not merge with the parent; and (4) these new species must stabilize or expand their population to survive long enough to play a separate evolutionary role. This “stages of speciation” (SOS) framework permits greater resolution of the impact of the causal factors involved, and can serve as a standard method for studying speciation.

Keywords:   models of speciation, speciation cycle, incipient species

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