This chapter lends a Mediterranean and Middle Eastern corollary to studies of the European refugee crises unleashed by the First World War. It examines the abrogation of the Capitulatory regime by the Ottoman authorities during the Great War, and the subsequent expulsion of “enemy aliens” (inclusive of citizens, protégés, and colonial subjects of the Allied powers—Jews, Christians, and Muslims) from Palestine and Syria by Cemal Paşa, one of three leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress brought to power by a 1913 military coup. “Protégé refugees” associates this crisis with the wartime expulsion of Greeks from Izmir and the Aegean islands and the genocide and displacement of Armenians begun in 1915 by various Ottoman statesmen in the CUP authorities, arguing that these efforts were part of a broader Ottoman wartime strategy to use jihad flexibly, to various ends. Here, a refugee crisis is presented as a set of legal problems that plagued not only refugees and the Ottoman authorities but the capitulatory states of Europe, especially England and France, for whom it demonstrated the financial, legal, and philosophical hazards associated with protection.
Chicago Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.