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Extraterritorial DreamsEuropean Citizenship, Sephardi Jews, and the Ottoman Twentieth Century$
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Sarah Abrevaya Stein

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780226368191

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226368368.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 23 January 2020

Protégé Refugees

Protégé Refugees

Chapter:
(p.50) Chapter 2 Protégé Refugees
Source:
Extraterritorial Dreams
Author(s):

Sarah Abrevaya Stein

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226368368.003.0003

This chapter lends a Mediterranean and Middle Eastern corollary to studies of the European refugee crises unleashed by the First World War. It examines the abrogation of the Capitulatory regime by the Ottoman authorities during the Great War, and the subsequent expulsion of “enemy aliens” (inclusive of citizens, protégés, and colonial subjects of the Allied powers—Jews, Christians, and Muslims) from Palestine and Syria by Cemal Paşa, one of three leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress brought to power by a 1913 military coup. “Protégé refugees” associates this crisis with the wartime expulsion of Greeks from Izmir and the Aegean islands and the genocide and displacement of Armenians begun in 1915 by various Ottoman statesmen in the CUP authorities, arguing that these efforts were part of a broader Ottoman wartime strategy to use jihad flexibly, to various ends. Here, a refugee crisis is presented as a set of legal problems that plagued not only refugees and the Ottoman authorities but the capitulatory states of Europe, especially England and France, for whom it demonstrated the financial, legal, and philosophical hazards associated with protection.

Keywords:   Syria, Palestine, refugees, Armenian genocide, enemy aliens, Egypt, Jihad, legal treatment of minorities, First World War, Ottoman

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