Discipline, Autonomy, and Group Relations
This chapter describes and analyzes changes in teachers’ approaches to students’ socialization and human development between 1996 and 2007, through a comparison of first year (seventh grade) field trips at Tachibana junior high school. In 1996, teachers focused on group discipline, based on the ideal of shūdan seikatsu (group life). By 2007, they had moved toward greater emphasis on promotion of autonomous thinking, influenced by the educational reform agenda and the new curricular domain of Integrated Studies (sōgō gakushū). However, the chapter also shows how reforms were adapted by the school to serve teachers’ priorities. The main foci of the 2007 field trip were developing human relationships and experiencing nature, rather than the creativity, problem-solving, and self-motivated learning that were main foci of the curricular reforms.
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