This chapter discusses stormwater control measures that mitigate runoff from urbanized land. Streets and driveways account for more than half of all impervious surfaces, but more than 80% of imperviousness connected to stormwater systems. The chapter describes nonstructural approaches such as riparian buffer preservation, street sweeping, sediment removal, vegetation maintenance, and litter removal. It also details low-impact development that prevents precipitation from become runoff by using design features ranging from rain barrels to porous pavement and careful construction practices. The chapter also considers measures to use once runoff picks up pollutants that involve infiltration, filtration, detention, and retention of stormwater runoff, making use of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Structures discussed include constructed wetlands, biofilters and bioretention areas, and ponds.
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