This chapter describes the surfaces that prevent the infiltration of precipitation into soil. It pictures how, as a village grows from a few businesses and a neighborhood to a large city, the imperviousness increases and becomes more likely connected to a stormwater system that alleviates the urban problems associated with large water volumes. Eventually, a stormwater system of drains and pipes replaces headwater streams and riparian systems. Although most of the discussion refers to pavement and roofs, urban development compacts soils when trucks and other implements drive over them. Like imperviousness, compaction makes these soils much less permeable. Groundwater recharge depends on these factors, along with soil type. This chapter also discusses the wash-off of particulate pollutants from impervious surfaces, and the properties of these particulates.
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