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SnowbirdIntegrative Biology and Evolutionary Diversity in the Junco$
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Ellen D. "Ketterson and Jonathan W. Atwell

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780226330778

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226330808.001.0001

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Axes of Biogeographic Variation in the Avian Genus Junco

Axes of Biogeographic Variation in the Avian Genus Junco

Habitat, Morphology, Migration, and Seasonal Timing, with Implications for Diversification under Heteropatry

(p.35) Chapter Three Axes of Biogeographic Variation in the Avian Genus Junco

Jonathan W. Atwell

Dawn M. O’Neal

Ellen D. Ketterson

University of Chicago Press

Evaluating organismal and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie diversification requires detailed biogeographic information about phenotypes and environments, and is particularly informative, though challenging, in widely distributed, highly mobile animals that occupy a broad range of habitats, as does the genus Junco. Important goals such as elucidating evolutionary histories and examining local adaptation are also made more challenging when considering migratory populations that are allopatric when breeding but sympatric at other times of year. This pattern of distribution (‘heteropatry,’ Winker 2010a) raises important questions about the interplay between local adaptation and gene flow in facilitating and maintaining diversification in variably migratory lineages such as Junco. Chapter 3 provides an overview of both well-studied and largely underexplored ‘axes of biogeographic variation’—habitat, morphology, migration, and seasonal timing—that characterize different junco populations, noting glaring gaps in basic natural history information for many groups. It also discusses the potential roles of variation in seasonality and migration in maintaining or reinforcing diversification among junco populations in the context of heteropatry, and raises future research avenues for improving the resolution of phenotypic and geographic characterizations of variation, including a major role for emerging technologies.

Keywords:   biogeography, ecology, habitat, heteropatry, life history, migration, morphology, natural history, phenology, phenotype

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