Chapter eleven summarizes the evidence presented in previous chapters, and extends the findings to broader questions about educational reform, testing, and accountability. First the author discusses the factors that most directly influenced Japanese teachers as they attempted to follow policy guidelines for relaxed education. Next, he connects the behavior of classroom teachers to shifts in the Japanese education bureaucracy. Finally, he considers how the findings of this study could be applied to other education systems attempting to find an appropriate balance between academic rigor and student engagement.
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