This chapter describes the customary dedication of Cicero who appeals to Roman history as a means of justifying his own endeavor. Cicero indicates that inborn proclivities do not disappear completely even in those whose training has been completely successful. He confuses the issue slightly by also identifying confidence as a form of knowledge, that is, as a movement; a consistency ought not to be knowledge but rather an activity of knowledge. Cicero, or his source, may have confused the movement with the similarly named condition. A brief reprise of the theory on proclivities and faults is augmented by a curious anecdote involving the ancient practice of physiognomics or the reading of character from external appearance.
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