This chapter explains Cicero's treatment of the problems that come from solutions proposed in the writings of the early Stoics Cleanthes and Chrysippus. Stoics not only denied that the wise person can regard any present circumstances as an evil, but even the Peripatetics did not want their wise person to believe that any present evil is a serious one. The primary difference between the two ethical systems can thus be set aside. Distress in the broader sense has not been treated exhaustively, because there are many other species, which Cicero proceeds to enumerate. Parallels in other Stoic texts suggest that the feeling of which he speaks is also integral to the Stoic theory, where it serves to clarify the Stoic point about the defining role of assent.
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