This chapter points at the centrality of psychology in the discourse of two late modern movements: Hasidism (especially the Habad school), and Lithuanian Mussar. In discussing Habad, the model of the dual soul, divine and animal (or even evil), is placed in cultural context and is compared to a similar dichotomy between the heart and the brain. The radical psychology of Mordekhai Yosef Leiner and his response to “the pain of the modern.” is introduced. The discussion of various schools of Mussar highlights the response of this movement to modern culture, especially existentialism, psychoanalysis and socialism. Chapter 3 concludes with considering the place of Mussar's quest for “the soul of the law” and the cultural atmosphere of the Lithuanian Yeshiva world.
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