The ideal war elephant was a mature male, with large tusks, in the heightened hormonal state of combativeness called musth, having a driver on his neck bearing the two-pointed hook to restrain him, and warriors on his back. The kings of early civilizations (Egypt, Assyria, Mesopotamia, China, the Indus Civilization) were drawn to elephants in ways that caused their decline. That was reversed by the invention of the war elephant, in late Vedic period India, about 1000 BCE
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