Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Vital MinimumNeed, Science, and Politics in Modern France$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Dana Simmons

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780226251561

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226251738.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 09 April 2020

Family, Race, Type

Family, Race, Type

Chapter:
(p.55) Chapter 4 Family, Race, Type
Source:
Vital Minimum
Author(s):

Dana Simmons

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226251738.003.0004

This chapter traces the origins of the nineteenth-century social survey, in a collision of biology and politics. Social surveys drew from the logics of biology, anthropological medicine, economic theory, scientific exploration, and worker activism. Common to all of those fields was an obsession with measuring and categorizing human needs. Georges Cuvier and Jean Baptiste Lamarck defined modern zoology in a debate over the role of needs in the animal economy. The zoological conflict then profoundly influenced theories of welfare and need. Zoologists and social reformers alike asked whether needs were fixed or mutable. Conservative social reformers Joseph de Gérando and Frédéric Le Play divided the French popuation into fixed socio-medical, then racial, types. Socialists and workers’ journals argued for a statistical index that could track ever-expanding needs. Need appeared as a foundational category for class politics and for the natural and human sciences.

Keywords:   social survey, family, race, family budget, anthropology, zoology, social statistics, sociology, charity

Chicago Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.