This chapter describes an emerging technoscience of the welfare state. Nineteenth-century chemists designed a set of techniques for managing population and labor: use of the scale balance, input-output equations, food rationing and the science of work. These techniques played a key role in French public hygiene and social reform. Scientists began to trace relationships between consumption and labor, home and work, production and reproduction. Around the mid-nineteenth century, institutionalized populations such as schoolchildren, soldiers and prisoners served as model subjects. By the end of the ninteenth century, these techniques were applied to wage laborers.
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