Nixon, Ford, and Carter
Richard Nixon conducted a secret foreign policy with Henry Kissinger. He reconstructed relations with the Soviet Union and China. He conducted a secret war in Cambodia and increased bombing of Vietnam as he tried to end the Vietnam War by executive action. He spied on dissent, abused executive privilege, obstructed justice, used federal agencies to punish his enemies, overextended impoundment, and resigned to avoid impeachment during the Watergate scandal. He solidified presidential control over judicial nominations and the executive branch in an effort to reconstruct American politics. Congress enacted the War Powers Resolution to try to control presidential warmaking, and also passed other statutes constraining executive discretion. Gerald Ford became our only unelected president and pardoned Nixon. Jimmy Carter entered the Panama Canal Treaty and negotiated an end to the Iranian hostage crisis.
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