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The Decline of Latin American EconomiesGrowth, Institutions, and Crises$
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Sebastian Edwards, Gerardo Esquivel, and Graciela Marquez

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780226185002

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226185033.001.0001

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Some Economic Effects of Closing the Economy

Some Economic Effects of Closing the Economy

The Mexican Experience in the Mid-Twentieth Century

(p.333) 9 Some Economic Effects of Closing the Economy
The Decline of Latin American Economies

Gerardo Esquivel

Graciela Márquez

University of Chicago Press

This chapter focuses on an economy that was recently opened and which has been the subject of many of the empirical studies: Mexico's. Mexico substantially reduced its tariff and non-tariff barriers, starting in the mid-1980s, and later on, in the early 1990s, joined the North American Free Trade Agreement, effectively developing a very open economy. However, despite the fact that the Mexican economy was relatively closed in the early 1980s, it is not quite clear how long that had been the case. The chapter argues that, even though Mexican industry has been protected for a long period, which in some cases goes back to the late nineteenth century, the structure of protection that existed in the Mexican economy in the second half of the twentieth century came from an important modification to its commercial policy which took place around 1947.

Keywords:   Mexico, tariff, Free Trade Agreement, Mexican economy, commercial policy, non-tariff barriers, open economy

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