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History's ShadowNative Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century$
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Steven Conn

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780226114941

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: March 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226115115.001.0001

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The Art and Science of Describing and Classifying: The Triumph of Anthropology

The Art and Science of Describing and Classifying: The Triumph of Anthropology

(p.154) 5 The Art and Science of Describing and Classifying: The Triumph of Anthropology
History's Shadow
University of Chicago Press

As the nineteenth century turned into the twentieth, anthropology emerged as a lively new “science,” created from a synthesis of several related but autonomous fields. Harvard librarian and historian Justin Winsor saw as much when he observed in 1888 that out of archaeological and ethnological work in the nineteenth century “has risen the new science of Anthropology, broad enough in its scope to include not only archaeology in its general acceptation, but to sweep into its range of observation various aspects of ethnology and geology.” In fact, Winsor had it only partially right. In the end, anthropology served as the umbrella under which gathered four studies—archaeology, language, ethnography/ethnology, and “somatology”—the four “legs” of anthropology's “chair” in the oft-used metaphor. These were the researches around which anthropology coalesced as an academic discipline in the 1890s, and they remain the heart of anthropology today.

Keywords:   anthropology, science of describing, anthropology, ethnology, somatology, nineteenth century

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