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Victorian Scientific NaturalismCommunity, Identity, Continuity$
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Bernard Lightman and Gowan Dawson

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780226109503

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 19 June 2021

Economies of Scales: Evolutionary Naturalists and the Victorian Examination System

Economies of Scales: Evolutionary Naturalists and the Victorian Examination System

Chapter:
(p.131) 5 Economies of Scales: Evolutionary Naturalists and the Victorian Examination System
Source:
Victorian Scientific Naturalism
Author(s):

James Elwick

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226109640.003.0006

Some chose to learn scientific naturalism. Others were compelled to learn it. Anyone studying for a Department of Science and Art examination pored over every word of its published syllabi, past exam papers, and textbooks. Anyone wishing to pass an exam had to formulate their answers in the language of scientific naturalism. To establish this point, this chapter looks at how it became possible to simultaneously test thousands of candidates with exactly the same questions and yield results deemed trustworthy. It specifically reconstructs the workings of Huxley's May 1870 animal physiology exam, written by 3705 candidates, and the naturalistic catechisms used to pass it. Scientific naturalism and mass education emerged hand in hand.

Keywords:   T. H. Huxley, science education, biology education, credentials, educational standards, written examinations, standardization, standardized testing, history of examinations

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