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A Neighborhood That Never ChangesGentrification, Social Preservation, and the Search for Authenticity$

Japonica Brown-Saracino

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780226076621

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: February 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226076645.001.0001

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(p.321) Index

(p.321) Index

Source:
A Neighborhood That Never Changes
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press

Note: Italicized page numbers indicate illustrations.

Abu-Lughod, Janet, 7
Advocate: coverage of gentrification in Provincetown, 112
affordable housing, 13, 161, 285n6, 285n9;
advocacy for, 9, 83, 89, 101, 106–8, 118–19, 127, 129, 205, 255, 258–59, 267, 273;
Andersonville, 126–29, 131, 268;
and Community Preservation Act, 83, 109;
consultant, 34;
Dresden, 134, 138, 140–41;
and community, 90, 92;
and drug testing, 124;
explanations for advocacy, 114;
extra-local advocacy for, 129;
and gentrifiers' motivations for moving, 4;
and pioneers, 52;
populations served, 281n1;
in Provincetown, 2, 34, 52, 83, 85, 99, 108–10, 113–14, 116–17, 146, 156–59, 167, 174–75, 187–88, 194, 271, 276;
Provincetown Artist Live-in Studio Space, 108;
resistance to, 121–22, 124;
and trailers, 141, 286–87nn3132
Alanen, Arnold, 172
Alexander, Jeffrey, 298n16
Allen, Irving, 17, 196, 282n9, 282nn1819, 285n5, 289n35, 293n28, 293n31, 294n1
Anderson, Barry, 294n1, 295n11
Anderson, Benedict, 176, 287n3
Anderson, Elijah, 6, 17, 282nn1819
Andersonville: affordable housing, 126–29, 131, 268;
alderwoman, 170, 267–68;
block clubs, 58, 99, 170, 220–23, 268, 269;
Chamber of Commerce, 37, 39, 40, 49, 95, 127, 130–33, 163, 170, 267–68;
Chicago Fire, 35, 162;
Clark Street, 37, 39–40, 58, 95, 97, 123, 126, 128, 130, 218, 259;
condominiums, 39, 93, 129, 225, 267;
congregations, 36, 170, 218, 222, 268;
demographics, 39, 40, 41;
described, 35–41;
diminishing Swedish population, 37, 40, 41, 131, 133, 171;
Dyke March, 163, 165, 218, 277, 295;
Easter Procession, 268;
expansion, of 129–30;
as gay enclave, 202;
gay men and, xi, 8, 23, 37, 39, 58, 91, 93–95, 170, 173, 293n33;
and gentrification, 22, 23, 37, 39–41, 129–30, 267;
independent business owners, 23, 41, 59, 97, 109, 123, 126–33, 154, 155, 268;
and Lakewood Balmoral, 39, 283n9;
Lebanese merchants, 49;
lesbians and, xi, 37, 39, 23, 170, 293n33;
and loss of Swedish community, 88, 95;
map of, 38;
Middle Easterners and, 23, 37, 145–46, 152, 154, 164, 165, 243, 276;
Midsommar Festival, 37, 39, 128, 163, 164, 165, 173, 259;
nomenclature, 37, 170;
old-timers' characteristics, 23, 130–31, 151, 154–55;
Santa Lucia Procession, 128, 163–65;
social preservation practices in, 126–34;
social preservationists' shifting object of protection, 129, 133;
Swedish American Museum, 88, 95, 126, 132–33, 161, 170, 221, 243, 245, 259, 268;
Swedish businesses, 41, 126, 128;
Swedish identity and heritage of 36, 41, 127–28, 131–32, 146, 151, 162, 170, 243, 259;
three-flats, 36, 39, 131;
Women and Children First, 126, 268
Andersonville Streetscape Committee, 170
Andert, John, 113
Antani, Jay, 207
antigentrification movements, 13, 17;
in literature, 13
Apgar, William C.,1985
Argyle: affordable housing, 49–50, 117–22, 124, 126–27, 269;
African Americans, 23, 41–42, 45, 54–55, 71–72, 146, 151, 154, 261, 273, 288n11;
alderwoman, 41, 42, 97, 122, 125–26, 260, 286n20;
Appalachians, 23, 41, 151, 154, 288n11;
(p.322) Asian Marketplace, 158, 223, 260;
Asian oldtimers, 23, 150–51, 154–55, 223, 242;
Asianthemed streetscape, 8, 54–55, 105, 109, 120–21, 125–26, 172, 245, 260, 269, 273;
block clubs, 42, 44, 66–67, 72, 74–75, 117, 121, 123–25, 222–23, 236, 237, 269, 275;
Cambodian immigrants, 41, 154;
Chinatown North, 41, 158;
Chinese American residents, 165, 294;
Chinese businesses, 41, 54, 74, 117, 121, 125, 158, 177, 201, 222, 235–36, 295;
Chinese immigrants, 41, 151, 154;
Chinese Mutual Aid Association, 44, 120, 269;
Chinese New Year celebration, 43, 47, 120, 163, 259;
Community of Uptown Residents for Affordability and Justice, 118;
condominiums, 43–44, 53, 65, 72–73, 121–22, 126, 146, 236;
description of, 41–45;
el stop with pagoda, 42, 42, 120, 171, 223;
Essanay Studios, 41;
ethnic and racial character, 242;
frontier and salvation rhetoric in, 121;
gay bar, 44;
gay men, 23, 44;
and gentrification, 23, 42–45;
Green Mill, 41;
as Jewish enclave, 8;
Jews and, 23, 41, 118, 154, 169, 286n17;
Korean immigrants, 42, 154;
Korean restaurants, 201;
Lake Michigan, 43–44, 67;
Laotian immigrants, 41, 154;
Latinos, 41;
Little Saigon, 41;
map of, 38;
old-timers' English language barriers, 124–26;
Organization of the North East, 118;
Prohibition, 41;
Queer to the Left, 118–19, 204–5, 269, 294n38;
recent demographic shifts, 43–44, 45, 45;
shifting boundaries, 44–45, 130, 283n11;
research challenges in, 275–76;
single-resident-occupancy hotels, 42;
social preservation practices in, 45, 117–26;
social service agencies, 41–42;
residents' perspectives on Andersonville's expansion, 130–31;
synagogue, 41;
Thai immigrants, 41, 154;
Thai businesses, 42, 54, 121, 201;
three-flats, 59;
Vietnamese-American residents, 8, 41, 45, 151, 162;
Vietnamese businesses, 41, 54, 74, 117, 121, 125, 158, 177, 201, 222, 235–36, 273;
Vietnamese Chamber, 222–23;
Vietnamese groceries, 42, 121;
Vietnamese immigrants, 41, 154;
Vietnamtown, 158
Argyle Streetscape Task Force, 91
art, 286n16;
and artists, 156, 288n16;
and data collection, 274;
influence on social preservationists, 133, 194;
use by social preservationists, 9, 89, 95, 101, 104, 105, 109, 112, 117, 128, 259, 294n39;
use of to construct old-timers, 151
assimilation, 183–84;
social preservationists' reaction to, 284n3
Atkinson, Rowland, 6, 214, 286n29, 294n1, 295n4, 296n23, 297n29
authenticators, 147;
implications of authenticity for, 147, 172–76, 262;
social preservationists as, 147
authenticity: artistic depictions of, 288n19;
associated with children, 83, 91;
associated with families, 91–92, 102, 160, 165, 288n22;
associated with financial struggle, 156;
associated with newcomers, 65–68;
associated with others, 148, 153, 172–73;
centers, 161;
class and, 150;
and commerce, 169;
community, 83, 89–92, 99, 102, 146–47, 153, 173, 175–77, 262, 289n35;
consequences of, 175–76;
consequences of constructions of, 147;
consequences of definitions of, 178;
construction of, 147–48;
cultural, 92, 201;
and cultural continuity, 151;
and economic struggle, 159;
and elderly, 118;
and ethnicity, 88, 150;
fabrication of, 148;
and families, 91–92, 102, 160, 165, 288n22;
and food, 160–61;
and future orientation, 65–68;
gay men and lesbians as markers of, 68–70;
and globalization, 89;
historical, 56–61;
homogeneity as threat to, 128;
and independence, 154–60;
indicators of, 148;
and institutions, 88, 160;
as interpretive process, 148;
invention of, 148;
landscape, 61–65, 81–82, 172;
and language, 160–61;
and local history, 57;
and longevity of residence, 166;
loss of, 88;
manual labor, 156;
and marginalization, 158, 261;
and mutual dependence, 159;
occupation and, 150;
and old-timers' character, 139;
and old-timers' community, 82, 86–87, 90–92, 262;
and old-timers' political ideologies, 139;
and origin stories, 81–83;
and place character, 56, 95, 132;
power of, 147, 264;
preconceived notions of, 148;
race and, 150;
and real people, 86, 148;
regional, 137;
and relationship to inauthenticity, 173, 176, 290n36;
and relationship to place, 168;
as reward, 255;
self-dependence and, 154–60;
and small businesses, 155;
social, 83, 92;
and social preservation ideology, 8–9, 13, 19, 80–103, 145–53, 176–79, 201–2, 212, 256, 264–65;
and tradition, 86, 145;
visibility of markers of, 165;
of working class, 89. See also virtuous marginality
Bailey, Nick, 214, 294n1
Barbaro, Michael, 143–44
Barconi, Frank, 295n11
Barnes, Vivienne, 286n21
Barthel, Diane, 172, 287n8, 297n31
Baumann, Shyon, 292n21
Bayliss, Corey Michael, 286n21
Bearman, Peter, 172
Beauregard, Robert, 297n11
beautification: advocacy for, 124;
and block clubs, 42–43, 121, 237;
and gentrification, 121, 145–46, 223, 237–38, 245, 247;
meetings, 53, 269;
and pioneers, 124;
risks of, 145–46;
and social homesteaders, 71–75
Becker, Howard, 287n4
(p.323) Bell, Michael, 193, 276, 281n3, 284n1, 289n35, 297n31
Bellafonte, Gina, 293n35
Bellah, Robert, 154, 288n9, 288n16, 288n21, 289n24
Bendix, Regina, 289n35
Bennett, Larry, 41
Berrey, Ellen C., 282n16, 282n18, 283n19
Berry, Brian, 180, 214, 282nn910, 285n5, 291n5, 294n1, 298n18
Beverland, Michael, 289n35
Biernacki, Richard, 298n16
block club(s), 131, 170, 220, 296n19;
as agents of gentrification, 275;
and beautification goals, 42–43, 121, 237;
and crime reduction goals, 42–43;
and community vitality, 71–72, 220;
in facilitating neighborhood improvement, 121, 222–23;
and neighborhood safety goals, 46;
and neighborhoods' shifting boundaries, 44;
pioneers' participation in, 104;
as research sites, 46, 48, 267–70, 272, 273, 275;
social homesteaders' participation in, 56–57, 58, 66, 67, 72, 74–75, 104;
social preservationists' participation in, 99, 104, 106, 117, 123–24, 236, 274;
as sites for public gentrification debates, 106, 117–18, 123–24, 125;
viewed as sites of community by old-timers, 220–22
Bobo, Lawrence, 192
Bohl, Charles C., 296n15
Bolté, Mary: Portrait of a Woman Down East, 26, 283n3
Borer, Michael Ian, 282n17, 297nn56, 297n13
Bourdieu, Pierre, 292n16, 292n20, 297n12, 298n16
Boyd, Michelle, 282nn1819
Boystown, 37, 206;
streetscape, 243
Bragg, Mary Ann, 245
Braham, Jeanne, 32, 33
“Breakwater” (Doty), 35
Brekhus, Wayne, 209, 294n36
Breton, Raymond, 170
Bridge, Gary, 281n3, 282n9
Bridger, Darren, 290n35
Briggs, Xavier Souza, 296n15
Brint, Steven G., 167, 192, 289n30, 292n16, 295n4
Bryson, Bethany, 292nn2021
Burgess, Ernest W., 169
Butler, Mary Ellen, 112
Butler, Tim, 15, 17, 19, 251, 282nn810, 282n14, 282nn1819, 285n5, 297n7, 297n14, 298n18
Cantwell, Robert, 179, 289n29, 289n35, 290n36
Castells, Manuel, 283n6, 293n35, 295n2
Caulfield, Jon, 16, 17, 18, 19, 180, 189, 203, 211, 264, 282nn710, 282n19, 283n20, 284n2, 284n4, 285nn23, 285n5, 296n26, 297n7, 298n18
chains, 37, 96;
Borders, 98, 119, 127, 268;
Burger King, 70;
as indicator of inauthenticity, 96, 155, 164–65;
old-timers' view of, 132;
opposition to, 98, 119, 121, 123, 127, 132, 286, 288n14;
Starbucks, 58, 74, 91, 94, 97, 117, 119, 155, 165, 207, 237;
Subway, 70
Chamber of Commerce. See under Andersonville
change: gentrifiers' appreciation for, 6, 115;
gentrifiers' fear of, 6, 76;
as inevitable, 76;
and neighborhood succession, 93–94, 96;
old-timers' appreciation of, 234–35, 238;
old-timers' fear of, 235–36;
old-timers' resistance to, 140, 241;
old-timers' response to, 213–247;
old-timers' support for, 134, 241;
pioneers' views of, 53–55, 115;
as positive, 233;
resistance to, 167;
social homesteaders' orientation to, 10, 47, 66–68, 71, 74–75, 78;
social preservationists' orientation to, 83, 103, 106, 153, 192, 196–97
Chernoff, Michael, 4, 7, 214, 219, 248, 294n1
children, 15, 93, 99, 166;
absence of, 91;
appreciation for, 73, 91;
and community decline, 91–92, 215;
fear of, 73;
and future displacement of, 89;
as justification for gentrification, 124;
land gifting to adult, 141, 286n30;
loss of, 83, 116, 186, 227;
as markers of authenticity, 83, 91;
seeking economic opportunity 229–31;
social preservationists' concern for, 186
Christenson, James A., 102
Clark, Terry Nichols, 282n17
class, 182–89;
of gentrifiers, 182–89;
of social preservationists, 182–89;
tension between oldtimers and newcomers, 116, 139
Collins, Richard C., 287n8
Colman, David: “Rich Gay, Poor Gay,” 233
community: association of independence with, 154–60, 288n10;
associated with newcomers, 68–70, 222;
as associated with others, 148, 153, 172–73;
association with place, 168–72;
association of tradition with, 160–67;
authentic, 83, 89–92, 99, 102, 146–47, 153, 173, 175–77, 262, 289n35;
block clubs, 71–72, 220–22;
centers, 161;
and change (see change);
and children, 83, 91–92, 166, 215;
claims to, 147;
cohesiveness, 198;
and collective memory, 87–88;
and commerce, 169;
conceptions of, 147;
consequences of conceptions of, 147;
consequences of definition, 175–76, 178;
consequences of social preservation for, 262;
construction of, 163;
cultural tradition, 92;
decline of, 89–90, 91–92, 176, 178, 214–16, 219, 222, 247;
disruption of, 214;
elective, 289n32,
and enduring ties, 160;
and ethnic business associations, 222;
evaluation of, 90;
and family, 91–92, 102, 160, 165, 167, 288n22;
and farming, 137;
flavor of, 98;
and food, 160–61;
and gentrification, 102, 128, 223;
heterogeneity as threat to, 219;
historical, 89;
as home, 82–83;
and homeownership, 72;
ideologies about, 175–76;
imagined, 176;
implications (p.324) of transience for, 172;
indicators of, 90;
and institutions, 160, 295n10;
as intergenerational, 166–67;
and language, 161;
lineage-based, 92;
and longevity of residence, 166;
measures of, 178, 219, 289n30;
and mutual dependence, 159;
of newcomers, 65–70;
newcomers as threat to, 86–87, 90;
old-timers' community, 82, 86–87, 90–92, 262;
and organizations, 296n19;
place-based, 92, 172;
policing forums, 221;
preservation of, 110, 126–28, 243, 245;
and privatization, 215;
and public space, 215–19;
recognition, 153;
and relationship to place, 168;
and shared space, 168;
sites of, 221;
threats to, 102;
and turf, 295n6;
vitality, 220–24, 289n30. See also meetings
Community Preservation Act, 83, 109–10
community toolkit, 142;
explained, 142
comparative research, 143;
benefits of, 143
condominiums: in Andersonville, 39, 93, 129, 225, 267;
in Argyle, 43–44, 53, 65, 72–73, 121–22, 126, 146, 236;
and building preservation, 60–61;
and gentrifiers, 18;
perceived as tasteless, 58;
in Provincetown, 33–35, 83, 114, 167, 229;
resistance to, 49, 99, 126–27, 205, 224;
as symbol, 58–59;
viewed as positive transformation, 66–67, 124, 235;
viewed as threats to community, 92, 97, 100, 111–13, 159, 173
conflict: between gentrifiers and longtime residents, 7;
class-based, 62–63, 76–78, 85, 116, 118–33, 139;
cultural, 60–61, 70;
Connell, John, 281n3, 284n1, 289n33, 292n24, 296n20
conservation: commissions, 234, 245;
committees and data collection, 271, 272, 273;
in Dresden, 28, 64, 134, 138, 140, 172, 234, 247;
of old-timers, 126;
in Provincetown, 109, 187, 271
“Context in Architecture” (Yin), 281n5
Coontz, Stephanie, 153
cosmopolitanism, 18, 292n21, 293n31;
and Chicago, 162;
and diversity, 71;
and social preservationists, 185, 196, 199–202, 211–12
Cotgrove, Stephen, 297n31
creative class, 17, 185–86, 212, 291n15
crime: fear of, 55, 67;
as method of preventing gentrification, 93, 107;
reduction efforts, 42–43, 67, 93, 121, 223, 234–35;
social preservationists' views of, 93
cultural capital, 78, 110, 157, 227, 238, 255, 291n10;
and social preservation, 255, 260, 297n12
cultural continuity, 163
cultural objects, 192–94, 292n24;
influence on social preservationists, 192–96
cultural omnivorism, 185–86, 192;
and social preservationists, 185–86, 196, 211
cultural preservation, 86, 147, 284n3
cultural toolkit, 142
culture: and action, 254;
and agency, 254;
as coherent, 256–57, 298nn1516;
and community, 87;
and consumption, 107, 128, 190, 193, 202, 292n23;
and context, 298n17;
continuity of, 163;
and education, 292n20;
as endangered, 69–70, 147;
as fragmented, 251, 256, 257, 297n13, 298n15;
gentrifiers', 4, 14, 281n4;
frames, 298n17;
heterogeneity of as threat to community, 217;
and ideology, 142–43;
of middle class, 252;
and occupation, 292n16;
perceived uniformity of, 252;
and practices, 142–43;
as product and producer of capital, 251;
relationship to demographic traits, 14;
relationship to economic capital, 14, 16;
relationship to political economy, 254;
settled, 287n35;
and sources of coherence, 256;
and symbolic capital, 254;
as threatening or threatened, 143;
unsettled, 287n35
Cunningham, Michael, 233
Cybriwsky, Roman A., 5, 6, 7, 219, 294n1
Datel, Robin, 287n8
Davila, Arlene, 179, 282n18, 283n1, 289n35, 296nn2425, 296n27, 297nn3031
Davis, Fred, 153
Davis, James A., 192
Davis, Julie, 14
DeAre, Diana, 281n4
debate: about gentrification, 14;
among gentrifiers, 110–11, 114–17, 123–24;
between gentrifiers and longtimers (see under conflict)
Desroches, Steve, 111–12, 156, 161
development: old-timers' views of, 243–44;
resistance to, 62;
support for, 74–75, 86, 119, 189, 234, 236
di Leonardo, Micaela, 167, 178, 179, 284n1, 289n35, 297n2, 297n9
DiMaggio, Paul, 192, 292n20, 297n13, 298n17
“Dirt and Dead Ends” (Ray), 14–15
discourse: of cosmopolitanism, 18;
frontier and salvation, 143;
about gay men's and lesbians' gentrification, 205, 210;
of gay gentrifiers, 115;
of gentrifiers, 108, 142–43, 285n5;
influence of context on, 20, 256;
as mutually constitutive, 108, 123–24;
of old-timers, 116, 216, 231, 243;
of pioneers, 121, 123, 124, 142–43;
Provincetown's public, 116–17, 205;
public, on gentrification, 14, 98, 126;
of social homesteaders, 133, 142–43;
of social preservation, 106, 110, 116, 124, 132–33, 199, 202, 259, 271;
variation among gentrifiers, 114, 277, 282n14, 285n5
displacement: advocacy for, 123;
averted, 238;
of businesses, 59, 94–95, 131–32, 145–46;
and community, 83, 295n4;
cultural, 214, 226–27, (p.325) 261, 295n8;
of elderly, 118, 174, 186, 286n29, 296n22;
preventative measures in Dresden, 140–42;
of “local families,” 166;
of mentally ill, 128–29;
of middle class, 224–26;
physical, 145, 214, 219nn1920;
pioneers' attitudes toward, 52, 53–54;
political, 214, 226;
of property owners, 224–26;
social, 4–5, 214;
social homesteaders' attitudes toward, 59;
social preservationists' attitudes toward, 83, 84, 86–87, 127, 128–29, 199, 224;
sources of, 19, 114;
as threat to authenticity, 83, 87;
as threat to community, 86–87;
“voluntary,” 226–33
distinction, 282n6;
cultural, 157, 227, 238, 255, 260–61;
place-based, 92, 97, 113, 155, 161, 199
diversity, 282n16, 282n18;
appreciation for, 17, 151, 154;
and cosmopolitanism, 71;
criticisms of, 99;
cultural, 74;
as display, 99;
economic, 91;
ethnic, 91;
gay men's and lesbians' appreciation for, 203–4;
gentrification as threat to, 71, 119;
and melting pot, 56, 71, 194;
and new urbanism, 295n15;
old-timers' appreciation for, 238;
old-timers' view of, 238, 243;
perceived as problematic, 67;
racial, 71–72, 99;
and social homesteaders, 10, 71–75;
social preservationists' attitudes toward, 99, 119, 121, 284n3, 295n15;
symbolic consumption of, 11, 282n18;
as tossed salad, 194
diversity writ large, 10, 13, 71, 260, 282n14, 282n18
dogs, 91;
as marker of gentrification, 91;
as threat to authenticity, 91
Doty, Mark: “Breakwater,” 35
Dresden, Maine: affordable housing, 134, 138, 140–41;
back-to-the-landers, 28, 238;
and Bath Iron Works Factory, 24, 28, 158;
board of selectmen, 28, 62–63, 258;
Brick School House Museum, 161;
Circuit Breaker Program, 141;
Comprehensive Plan, 26, 283n4;
Conservation Commission, 28, 64, 271, 272;
described, 24–29;
dual-income couples, 27–28;
Eastern River, 62;
factors discouraging displacement in, 140–42;
farmers as old-timers, 84, 136, 141, 147–48, 154, 163–65, 198, 288n14;
farming, 26;
Farmlands campaign, 136–37, 242;
farm stands, 109, 137, 155, 164, 272;
Finance Committee, 28;
and gentrification, 23, 26–29;
Harvest Supper, 136, 163, 259, 272;
Historical Society, 137, 271, 272;
ice harvesting, 26;
and Kennebec River, 24;
land gifting, 141, 286n30;
libertarianism, 26, 63, 75, 78, 138–42, 155;
library, 271;
map of, 25;
newsletter, 64;
Planning Board, 28, 271;
Pownalborough Courthouse, 24, 26, 272;
preservation of farmers, 29, 84–85, 107, 109, 135, 164, 172, 177, 188, 238, 241–42, 258;
recent demographic shifts, 27, 28;
retirees, 27;
rural character, 64;
Russian immigrants, 26–27;
schools, 29;
School Committee, 28;
Select Board, 271;
shipbuilding, 26;
Snowmobile Club, 271;
social preservation practices in, 134–42;
Solid Waste Committee, 28;
tax policy, 141;
thrift shop, 138–39;
and tourism, 137;
trailers, 141;
volunteer fire department, 75, 89–90;
town meeting, 139, 271–72
Duncan, Otis Dudley, 291n6
Dunlap, Riley E., 297n31
Durkheim, Emile, 102, 219, 289n30, 295n4
Eckland, Bruce K., 192
Edgewater Development Corporation, 130
Edlynn, Emily, 14
Edwardes, Michael, 293n29
Ehrenreich, Barbara, 292n16
Ehrenreich, John, 292n16
Eight Forty-Eight, 85
Elari, John, 293n35
elderly, 86, 188;
and displacement, 118, 174, 186, 286n29, 296n22;
and protections against displacement of, 130;
impact of rising property taxes on, 60;
longtimers' concern for, 116;
social preservationists' relationships with, 113, 128
Eliasoph, Nina, 134
Erickson, Bonnie H., 192, 292n20
Erikson, Kai T., 153, 223
ethnicity: and authenticity, 87, 150;
and business associations, 125, 222, 269;
and gender, 288n15;
interview questions regarding, 48;
marketing of, 284n1;
and place, 229, 243;
and research sample, 22;
and selection of old-timers, 9, 146, 150–53, 161–63, 170, 177–78;
and social preservation practices, 88, 92, 105, 107, 118, 125, 148, 169, 199, 261, 284n1
Everson, Jennie G., 26
“Everyday Use” (Walker), 192–94
Faiman-Silva, Sandra, 32, 35, 141, 228
families: as authentic, 91–92, 102, 160, 165, 288n22;
as embodying community, 167;
as endangered, 91, 116, 166, 186;
and neighborhood change, 222;
and tradition, 165, 230
farmer: as icon, 77;
associated with place, 162,
and community-supported agriculture, 137;
as Dresden old-timers, 84, 136, 141, 147–48, 154, 163–65, 198, 288n14;
preservation of, 29, 84–85, 107, 109, 135, 164, 172, 177, 188, 238, 241–42, 258;
and self-sufficiency, 154–60
Fendrich, James Max, 292n16
festivals, 284n1;
Andersonville Easter Procession, 268;
Andersonville Midsommar Festival, 37, 39, 128, 163, 164, 165, 173, 259;
Andersonville Santa Lucia Procession, 128, 163–65;
Argyle Chinese New Year celebration, 43, 47, 120, 163, 259;
and construction of old-timer, 151;
Dresden Harvest Supper, 136, 163, 259, 272;
influence on (p.326) selection of old-timer, 163;
observation of, 46–47, 272;
Provincetown Birthday Celebration, 270;
Provincetown Blessing of the Fleet, 111, 163, 244, 270;
Provincetown Carnival, 33, 47, 163, 270;
Provincetown Fourth of July Parade, 270
Provincetown Portuguese Festival, 111, 163, 199, 244, 270;
Provincetown Year-Rounders' Festival, 148–49, 151, 270;
as symbolic preservation method, 111
Fine, Gary Alan, 288n20, 289n32, 289n35
Fischer, Claude, 160, 284n3, 289n28, 289n32
fishermen: as associated with place, 162, 171–72;
and authenticity, 29, 288n19;
preservation of, 8, 35, 83;
as Provincetown's old-timers, 23, 105, 112, 147–48, 154, 166;
and self-sufficiency, 154–60
Flag Wars, 205, 207
Florida, Richard, 17, 185–86, 212, 282n17, 291n15
food: and authenticity, 160–61;
and community, 160–61
Forsyth, Ann, 283n9, 293n35, 295n12
Fortress of Solitude (Lethem), 191, 207
Fowler, Robert Booth, 295n10, 296n18
Francaviglia, Richard, 153, 288n8
Freeman, Lance, 237, 294n1
French, Hugh T., 289n26
frontier, 6, 10, 15, 133, 161;
pioneers' appreciation for, 13, 48, 53;
social homesteaders' orientation to, 55, 282n14
frontier and salvation ideology, 5, 124, 180, 186, 250, 282n6, 285n5;
consequences of for social preservation, 121;
gentrifiers' departure from, 7–8, 17, 19, 180, 250, 285n5;
influence of, 143;
influences on, 143, 186;
pioneers' adherence to, 12, 51–55, 124, 282n14, 285n5;
practices, 121;
rhetoric, 121
Gale, Dennis E., 214, 285n5, 293n35, 294n1, 295n11
Galster, George C., 214, 294n1
gangs, 37, 55, 67, 146, 152, 288n11;
and Andersonville history, 37;
pioneers' concerns about, 55
Gans, Herbert, 287n3, 292n20
gay men: appreciation for heterogeneity, 203–4;
attacks on, 115–16;
blamed for gentrification, 89, 100, 110–12, 293n35;
and circuit parties, 69–70;
desire to form enclave, 53, 114, 115;
distaste for presence of other gays and lesbians, 89, 94–95, 100, 110–12, 173, 294n36;
and early stage gentrification, 37, 203, 209;
exposure to gentrification, 207;
identity and space, 294n12;
marginalization, 203–4, 208, 210–11;
as marker of authenticity, 68–70;
as perceived threat to authenticity, 208;
as pioneers, 53, 114, 116, 203;
privilege, 203–4, 210–11;
relationship to authenticity in Provincetown, 68–70;
representations of role in gentrification, 203–7;
role in gentrification, 85, 95, 119, 187, 285n14;
self-consciousness about perceived role in gentrification, 203–11;
sense of responsibility for gentrification, 8, 94–95, 205–6;
and social preservation, 118, 202–11;
stereotypes about, 207–8;
as symbol of gentrification, 93–94, 114;
as threat to authentic place character, 68–69, 85, 89, see also homophobia
Gay Metropolis, A History of Gay Life in New York, The (Kaiser), 207
Geertz, Clifford, 298n16
gentrification: accompanying practices and attitudes, 4, 8;
acknowledgement of perceived benefits, 97, 220;
Andersonville and, 22, 23, 37, 39–41, 129–30, 267;
Argyle and, 23, 42–45;
beliefs about, 21;
breadth of, 102;
Chicago and, 94, 97–98, 190, 205–6, 235, 242, 269, 286n19;
costs for longtimers, 2–3, 214;
and culture, 5, 16;
defined, 4;
and displacement, 4–5, 92;
distaste for, 99;
Dresden and, 23, 26–29;
expanding, 129;
expansion and neighborhood accountability, 130;
gap in literature, 8, 13–19, 103, 251–57;
gay men and, 8, 37, 53, 85, 89, 93–95, 100, 110–12, 114, 116, 118, 119, 187, 202, 203–11, 285n14, 293n35;
and homogeneity, 6, 91, 128;
and identity construction, 79;
images of, 102;
influence of stage, 140, 236;
and infrastructural transformation, 4;
lesbians and, 37, 85, 118–19, 202–11, 283n8, 294n40;
negative overtones, 15;
old-timers' perceptions of, 213–49;
orientations to, 78–79;
outcomes, 19;
perceived economic benefits, 233–38;
perceived cultural benefits, 238;
perceived as natural, 122;
pioneers' views of, 51, 53–55, 114, 117–18, 122–24;
place-names as signifiers of, 97–98;
popular representations of, 14–15, 190–92, 207, 257;
as process, 19, 103, 262;
as progress, 53, 67–68;
Provincetown and, 1–3, 22, 23, 33–35;
public debate about, 14, 54–55, 74, 114, 117;
residents' response to, 22;
retirees and, 5, 23, 27, 61–62, 75–76, 84, 110, 114, 156, 185, 258;
rural, 5, 14–15, 141;
social homesteaders' views of, 55–56, 65–68, 74–76, 78–79, 99;
and social preservation, 8–9, 11–12, 80–103, 108, 128, 155, 175, 256, 260–61;
symbols of, 93;
as threat to authenticity, 92, 99, 157–58;
as threat to community, 102, 128;
as threat to diversity, 71, 119;
as threat to place character, 82, 99;
tourism and, 5, 67, 156, 260;
urban, 4–6, 10, 16;
use of term, 124
gentrifier(s): appreciation for community, 284n2;
appreciation of diversity, 285n5;
appreciation for transformation, 6, 67;
cultures and demographic traits, 14;
cultures and economic capital, 14;
consequences of image of, 251;
criticisms of, 257;
cultures of, 4, 14, 281n4;
demographic traits, 180–81;
(p.327) distinctions among, 101;
diverse attitudes and practices, 19;
as economically rational, 19;
fear of transformation, 6;
fear of youth, 73;
fluidity of categories, 187;
heterogeneity of, 8–11, 76–78, 79, 187;
iconic pioneer, 253;
ideal types, 11;
and ideological consistency, 11–12;
ideological variation among, 7, 55, 81, 142–43, 212, 285n5;
image of, 251;
marginal, 180, 189, 210–12, 215, 261;
middle class, 102;
multiple orientations, 13;
practices and attitudes of, 4;
previous explanations for ideological variation, 7;
and prioritization of profit, 100, 174;
relationship to longtimers, 7;
self-consciousness as deceptive, 17;
self-consciousness as hypocritical, 18;
self-consciousness as inconsequential, 17–18;
self-consciousness as ironic, 17;
selfreflexivity, 79;
Ghaziani, Amin, 295n13, 298n15
Gieryn, Thomas F., 295n12
Glaser, Barney, 12
Gleason, David, 32, 296nn2526
globalization: as threat to authenticity, 89, 157, 201, 265, 293n29
Gotham, Kevin Fox, 5
Gouldner, Alvin W., 292n16
government, 16,
city, 41, 42, 46, 97, 101, 122, 125, 130, 170, 260, 267–68, 269, 286n20;
dominated by newcomers, 28, 35, 114–15;
gentrification sponsored by, 130, 205, 260;
influence on social preservation practices, 142,
and social preservationists' employment, 185;
Graham, Colin, 289n35, 295n12
Grana, Cesar, 289n35
Grant, Jill, 296n15
Gravesend Light (Payne), 191
Grayson, Kent, 289n35
Grazían, David, 289n35, 297n9
Griswold, Wendy, 102, 153, 161, 168, 177, 190, 192
grounded theory, 12
growth machine, 4, 254, 255, 297n7
Guelke, Jeanne Kay, 293n29
Guelke, Leonard, 293n29
Gusfield, Joseph R., 219
Hall, Phil, 207
Hammond, Dorothy, 293n29
Hampton, Keith, 289n30
Hannerz, Ulf, 200
Hardesty, Donald L., 172
Harrison, Sue, 113, 233
Hauser, Robert M., 291n6
Hawley, Amos H., 295n10, 296n18
Heath, Anthony, 292n16
Henig, Jeffrey, 214, 286n29, 294n1, 295n4, 295n11
Higham, John, 284n3
Hirsch, Arnold R., 178
historic preservation, 169, 263, 289n25;
in Provincetown, 109, 187;
and social homesteaders, 47–48, 56, 60;
social preservationists' resistance to, 85–86, 153
history: agrarian, 63;
attachment to local, 59, 100;
claims to, 160;
imagined, 96;
recent, 96;
renderings of, 161;
sense of, 160–61;
and social homesteaders, 56–61
Hobsbawm, Eric, 148, 289n35
Holstein, James A., 148
Holt, Douglas B., 184, 200, 291n10, 292n16, 292n21, 293n31
Holt, Louise, 283n8
homeownership: gentrification's impact on, 140, 141;
and gentrifiers, 4–5;
as motivation for relocation, 53, 72;
and old-timers, 129, 133, 214, 226, 228, 230, 233, 286n25;
social preservationists' views of, 224, 293n
homesteader. See social homesteader
homogeneity: resistance to, 119;
as threat to authenticity, 91, 119, 128
homophobia, 116, 217–18, 227–28, 240, 277;
in Provincetown, 32, 116, 277;
social preservationists' acceptance of, 148, 262
violence and, 115–16
Horton, John, 284–85n1
housing: remodeling, 60;
restoration, 11, 39, 51, 57;
rising costs, 4, 114, 129, 224–25, 228, 296n23. See also affordable housing; homeownership
Hummon, David, xi, 79, 284n3, 289n35
Hunter, Albert, 102, 170, 175, 176, 177, 219, 223, 284n3, 285n5, 287n3, 289n30, 295n4, 295n10, 296nn1819
ideal types, 11
identity: class, 78, 116;
community, 79;
conflict over, 114;
as context-specific, 144;
determination of place-based, 147, 172;
gay and lesbian, 114;
moral, 176;
of pioneers, 12, 48, 51;
placebased, 3, 79, 131, 231, 259, 284n3;
and power, 147, 287n3;
and privilege, 147;
racial, 78;
regional, 78;
selection of, 147;
of social homesteaders, 10, 12, 47, 55–56;
of social preservationists, 8–9, 11, 12, 47, 81, 85, 100, 211, 250
ideological consistency, 11–12
ideological variation, 7, 81, 249;
among gentrifiers, 7, 55, 81, 142–43, 212, 285n5;
constancy of social preservation, 11–12, 108, 143, 256, 285n5;
previous explanations for, 7,
sources of, 79
ideology: and action, 287n34;
and adherents' demographic traits, 16–17, 181, 212;
coherence of, 256–57;
and community, 287n3;
(p.328) consequences of, 147, 175–76;
and culture, 142–43;
and education, 184–85;
influence of, 142;
and occupation, 107, 186;
political, 78;
power of, 142, 147;
relationship to context, 142;
relationship to practice, 108;
social homesteading, 55;
and social location, 212, 292n17;
social preservation, 8–9, 11–12, 13, 19, 80–103, 108, 143, 153, 194–95, 201–2, 212, 256, 285n5;
sources of differences, 181;
relationship to political-economic positions, 20;
variation in expressions of, 142;
immigrants: Asian, 22, 42, 124–26, 150–51, 154, 154–55, 162;
Cambodian, 41, 154;
Chinese, 41, 151, 154;
Laotian, 41, 154;
Middle Eastern, 23, 37, 145–46, 152, 154, 164, 165, 243, 276;
Portuguese, 32, 33, 35, 82, 88–89, 100, 110, 111;
Russian, 26–27, 158;
Swedish, 36–37, 88, 95, 170;
Thai, 41, 154;
Vietnamese, 41, 154
In America (Sontag), 191
independent businesses: appreciation for, 97, 154–58;
displacement of, 145–46;
displacement of as loss of authenticity, 59, 94–95;
displacement of as necessary casualties, 59;
and families, 155, 288n12;
farm stands, 109, 137, 155, 164, 272;
mom-and-pop, 14, 61, 74, 123, 164;
social preservationists' efforts to preserve, 109, 123, 126–33, 154, 155;
Swedish, 41, 126, 128;
Vietnamese, 155
institutions, 161–62, 169, 170;
and community, 160, 295n10;
influence on selection of oldtimer, 161–62, 169;
influence on social preservationists, 194;
limits of, 171;
as mediating factors, 170;
and methods, 267–72;
old-timers', 99, 120, 169–70, 217, 244–45;
old-timers' preservation efforts, 244–45
interviews: and civically engaged individuals, 48, 181;
sample, 47–48;
questions, 273, 278–80
Iranian residents, 37, 145–46, 152, 276
Isaac, Larry, 192, 291n13
Jablow, Alta, 293n29
Janowitz, Morris, 289n27
Jaster, Robert, 26
Jindra, Michael, 289n32
Johnson, E. Patrick, 289n35
Johnson, John, 98
Johnston, JoseÉ, 292n21
Johnstone, John W. C., 292n16
Jowell, Roger, 292n16
Judd, R. W.: Maine: The Pine Tree State from Prehistory to the Present, 283n3
Judy, R. A. T., 289n35
Kain, John F., 294n1
Kaiser, Charles: The Gay Metropolis: A History of Gay Life in New York, 207
Kasinitz, Philip, 214, 294n1
Kefalas, Maria, 167, 178
Kegan, Paul, 297n31
Kern, Roger, 192, 211, 292n20
Kibria, Nazli, 287n3
Kirby, David, 14
Klawans, Stuart, 207
Kleinman, Sheryl, 176
Knoke, David, 192, 291n13
Knopp, Lawrence, 285n14, 293n35
Kornblum, William, 170, 295n10, 296n18
Krahulik, Karen, 32, 35, 228, 232, 244, 283n6, 288n19, 289n35
Kramer, Mark, 26
Kristol, Irving, 292n16
Ladd, Everett Carll, 192, 292n16
Lakeview. See Boystown
Lamont, Michèle, 178, 290n38
landscape: Dresden's, 28, 61, 79, 82, 84;
as peopled, 168;
and rural gentrification, 5;
as social, 168–69;
social homesteaders' appreciation for, 10, 55–58, 61–65, 85, 140, 142;
social preservationists' orientation to, 105, 135–36, 140, 171–72, 177;
threats to, 168–69
Lane, Kerstin B., 36, 37, 170
language: and authenticity, 160–61;
barriers, 124–26, 223;
and research challenges, 275–76
Larson, C., 155
Laumann, Edward: The Sexual Organization of the City, 208
Lee, Barrett A., 294n1
Lee, Helene, 298
Lees, Loretta, 17, 70, 180, 282n9, 282n15
Leff, Lisa, 203
Lehane, Dennis: Mystic River, 191
lesbians: appreciation for heterogeneity, 203–4;
desire to form enclave, 115;
distaste for presence of gays and other lesbians, 68–70, 100, 110–12, 173;
exclusion from old-timer category, 150;
as first-wave gentrifiers, 37;
and gentrification, 283n8, 294n40;
and gentrification of Andersonville, 37;
identity and space, 295n12;
and marginalization, 203–4, 208, 210–11;
as markers of authenticity, 68–70;
privilege, 203–4, 210–11;
and relationship to authenticity in Provincetown, 68–70;
relocation of, 209;
self-consciousness about role in gentrification, 119, 203–11;
and social preservation, 118, 202–11;
as threat to authenticity, 111–12. See also homophobia
Lethem, Jonathan: Fortress of Solitude, 191, 207
(p.329) Levy, Paul A., 5, 6, 7, 219, 294n1
Lewis, David, 290n35
Ley, David, 282n15, 297n5, 297n11
Leyden, Massachusetts, ix;
pilot study of, x–xi, 77, 272
libertarianism, 38;
in Dresden, 26, 63, 75, 78, 138–42, 155;
consequences of, 138;
and political abstinence, 138;
and social preservation, 138–42;
and resistance to regulations, 138, 247, 248;
sources, 139
Licari, Frederick C., 192
Link, Bruce G., 291n13
Lipsett, Seymour Martin, 192, 292
Lloyd, Richard, 16, 17, 282n18, 283n19, 285n5
Lodge, David C., 294n1
Lofland, Lyn, 219
Logan, John, 5, 167, 214, 254, 294n1, 295n4, 296n23
London, Bruce, 12, 13, 282n8
Long, Elizabeth, 291n7, 292n24
Long, Larry H., 5, 281nn34
longtimers, 23, 56, 152, 286n15;
costs of gentrification for, 2–3, 214;
defined, 49;
and selection of old-timer, 151–52, 286n15;
and social homesteaders' uplift strategies, 56
loss of authenticity, 88;
symbols of, 88
Lowenthal, David, 153, 288n8
Lyons, Michal, 294n1
MacCannell, Dean, 289n35, 293n30
Macgregor, Lyn, 281n3
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 288n9
Maine: The Pine Tree State from Prehistory to the Present (Judd), 283n3
Maly, Michael, 41, 284n2
Manso, Peter: P-town: Art, Sex, and Money on the Outer Cape, 233
Marcuse, Peter, 214, 294n1
marginal gentrifiers, 180, 189, 210–12, 215, 261
Martin, Joanne, 297n13
Martinec, Radan, 289n35
McDonnell, Terence, 286n16
McLaughlin, Abraham T., 138
McNulty, Elizabeth, 41
meetings: Chicago, 14, 53–55, 68, 72, 98, 99, 117–32, 151, 155, 170, 188, 205–6, 220–21, 235–36, 243, 260;
and data collection, 46, 232, 268–76, 290n3;
Mele, Christopher, 11, 13, 180, 189, 214, 282nn1819, 283n20, 286n20, 294n1, 295n8, 296n24, 297n30
Melnick, Robert, 172
melting pot, 56, 71, 194
mentally ill residents: in Argyle, 41–42, 67, 73–74, 121–22, 151–52, 186, 188, 269;
displacement of and loss of authenticity, 128–29;
fear of, 296n28;
resistance to displacement, 146
Merton, Robert K., 200
Miller, Gale, 148
Milligan, Melinda J., 288n8, 295n5
Mitchell, Don, 6
Mohr, John, 298
Molotch, Harvey, 5, 167, 214, 254, 294n1, 295n4, 296n23
Monti, Daniel, 289n30
Moore, Robert E., 291n13
Moss, Mitchell L., 293n35
Muñoz, Vicky, 297n30
Munski, D., 288n8
Murti, Kamakshi P., 293n29
Mystic River (Lehane), 191
Nathan, Richard P., 294n1
Neighborhoods Alive!: as gentrification strategy, 125–26;
as social preservation strategy, 125–26;
and streetscapes, 125–26
New York Times: coverage of gay and lesbian gentrifiers, 203–4, 207;
coverage of gentrification in Provincetown, 233;
gentrification coverage, 14, 143, 257;
social homesteaders' and preservationists' reading habits, 189–90
nostalgia, 96, 167, 198;
pioneers' rejection of, 52;
and social preservation, 102, 153;
for traditional community, 153, 167
Nyden, Phil, 14
O̓Donnell, Patricia, 288n8
O̓Laughlin, J., 288n8
Oldenburg, Ray, 289n30, 295n4, 295n10, 295n15
old-timers: admired traits, 147;
age, 166;
agency, 231;
alliances with homesteaders, 220, 241, 245;
alliances with pioneers, 241;
in Andersonville, 23, 130–31, 151, 154–55;
in Argyle, 23, 150–51, 154–55;
attitudes about change, 213–49;
attitudes about gentrification, 213–49;
attitudes about social preservation, 213–49;
as characters, 84, 138;
coalitions with social preservationists, 214;
communities, 82, 86–87, 90–92, 262;
and community vitality, 220–24;
conceptions of gentrifiers, 239–41;
conceptions of newcomers, 84, 138, 139, 221, 225, 239–41;
conceptions of social preservationists, 239–41;
connection to place, 168–76;
as constituting the minority of local population, 150–51;
construction of, 147, 157;
criticisms of affluence, 158;
cultural traditions, 99;
defined, 49, 147;
definitional boundaries, 146;
definitions of, 140;
displacement of, 84, 156;
as Dresden farmers, 84, 136, 141, 147–48, 154, 163–65, 198, 288n14;
(p.330) and economic struggle, 156–60;
ethnicity of, 146, 150;
exclusion from category, 150–52, 288n23;
food, 121;
and gender, 288n15;
heterogeneity of, 223–24;
independence and definition of, 154–60;
influence of, 133;
institutions, 99, 120, 169–70, 217, 244–45;
land-use traditions, 62, 99;
language barriers in Argyle, 124–25;
length of residence, 288n22;
local networks, 157–58;
and local organizations, 200;
longevity of residence, 149–50, 166–67;
merchants, 154;
middle class, 133, 226;
mobility of, 226;
natives, 150;
perceived isolation, 227;
as place-based category, 177;
Portuguese, 150, 151, 156–57;
preservation of, 19, 84;
as Provincetown fishermen, 23, 105, 112, 147–48, 154, 166;
and race, 150, 177, 261;
recognition of social preservation, 240–41;
as reflective agents, 226;
resentment of political intrusions, 84, 138–39;
role of local culture in defining, 152;
romanticization of, 75, 158;
sampling of, 294n3;
selection of, 145–79;
self-preservation, 241–47;
and sexual orientation, 150;
struggling artists, 154, 156–57, 158–59;
symbols of, 120;
terminology used to identify, 283n16;
tradition and definition of, 160–67;
townies, 149–50;
variability of attitudes, 213–49;
views of public space and community decline, 215–19;
working-class, 156
Oliver, Mary: “On Losing a House,” 34
Onion, 18
“On Losing a House” (Oliver), 34
Orvell, Miles, 289n35
Palen, J. John, 296n15
Parsons, D. J., 281n3
Parsons, Talcott, 160
Pascarella, Ernest T., 192
paternalistic advocacy, 117, 286n21;
as context specific, 124–25;
defined, 117, 124;
explained, 124–26
Pattillo, Mary, 17, 177, 211, 282n10, 282n19, 283nn1213, 285n5, 286n19, 296n16, 298n18
Pattison, Timothy James, 294n35
Paulsen, Krista, 142
Paxton, Pamela, 289n30
Payne, David: Gravesend Light, 191
Perez, Gina, 4
perspectival variation, 103, 250
Peterson, Pamela, 32, 33
Peterson, Richard A., 148, 192, 211, 289n35, 292n20
Phelan, Jo, 291n13
Phillips, D. A., 281n3
Phillips, Martin, 281n3
pioneer (s), 5–6;
and affordable housing, 52, 122, 124;
attitudes toward displacement, 52, 53–54;
defined, 12, 48, 51;
economic success, 52;
gentrification and common good, 53, 54;
images of, 8;
investment, 53;
literature on, 8;
priorities, 53;
progentrification sentiments, 53, 114, 117–18, 122–24;
reaction to social preservation discourse, 124;
rhetoric, 124;
as ruthless, 4, 250;
safety and beautification concerns, 53, 55, 122, 124;
and transformation, 53–55, 115;
view of gentrification as natural, 53, 122;
views of social preservationists, 123
place character, 142, 167, 255;
associated with oldtimers, 92, 105, 167;
and authenticity, 56, 95, 132;
claims about, 255;
and class, 70;
influence of on old-timers' views of gentrification, 239;
institutionalization of, 243;
marketing of, 255;
in Provincetown, 35, 65;
as mediating expression of beliefs, 143;
and residents, 146;
and social homesteaders, 56;
social preservationists' concern for, 127
place-names, 122, 130, 170, 286n20;
as gentrification strategy, 122, 286n20;
as signifiers of gentrification, 97–98;
as social preservation strategy, 130–31
Podmore, Julie A., 282n15, 297n5
political abstinence, 134, 174;
consequences of, 138;
defined, 134;
and Dresden, 134–42;
influence of town policies on, 141;
and political avoidance, 106, 110, 134;
and Provincetown, 108–17;
relationship to other ideologies, 135;
source of, 138
political avoidance, 106, 110, 134
political economy, 251;
and culture, 253–54, 255, 297nn57;
in Dresden, 141;
scholars' attention to, 251, 253–54, 297n5
Polk, O. Elmer, 286n21
Portrait of a Woman Down East (BoltÉ), 26, 283n3
Pratt, Mary Louise, 293n29
preservation: and class, 246–47;
community, 245;
cultural, 86, 147, 284n3;
historic, 56–61;
landscape, 55–56, 61–65, 105, 172;
of old-timers, 146;
selection of residents for, 145–79;
self, 144, 160, 241, 243, 246–47;
symbolic, 11, 13, 94, 105, 132, 133, 260. See also conservation; social preservation
property taxes, 166;
increases, 60, 107, 118, 224–26, 286n25;
resistance to increases, 107
property values, 89, 228;
rising, 129, 224–25, 228, 296n23
protest, 118–19, 127–28;
decreased, 129
Provincetown Banner: and anti-gentrification artwork, 112;
gentrifcation coverage, 113, 116, 232–33;
property values reported in, 33–34
Provincetown, Massachusetts: affordable housing, 34, 52, 83, 108–10, 113, 114, 167;
Affordable Housing task force, 271;
AIDS, 33, 69, 117;
artists, 32, 33;
as arts colony, 32, 100;
Blessing of the Fleet, 111, 163, 244, 270;
Blessing (p.331) of the Fleet, 111, 163, 244, 270;
boardinghouse past, 227;
board of selectmen, 35, 156, 191, 258, 270–71;
and Cape Cod, 29;
Cape Cod School of Art, 32, 116–17;
Carnival Parade, 33, 47, 163, 270;
circuit parties, 33, 69–70;
Community Visioning task force, 271;
Comprehensive Plan, 281n1;
consequences of frequent study of, 231–33;
Conservation Committee, 271;
control of town government in, 35, 110–11;
decline in births, 83, 91;
described, 1–2, 29–35;
Fine Arts Work Center, 32, 117;
fishermen as old-timers, 23, 105, 112, 147–48, 154, 166;
fishing industry, 32, 100, 165;
Fourth of July Parade, 270;
as gay enclave, 33, 65, 79, 116, 114, 202;
gay and lesbian tourists, 32–33, 52, 69, 79, 88, 114, 116, 283n6;
and gentrification, 1–3, 22, 23, 33–35;
guesthouses, 33;
guest workers, 35;
Heritage Museum, 161;
and Herring Cove, 1
Historic District Commission, 60, 271;
and lesbians, 1, 23, 32–33, 35, 51–52, 65, 68–70, 79, 100, 110–12, 114–17, 146, 150, 161, 170, 293n33;
Long Range Planning Committee, 271;
map of, 31;
Native Americans, 29;
Pilgrim Monument, 33, 161;
municipal nursing home, 271;
Pilgrim Monument, 33, 161;
Pilgrims, 29;
Planning Board, 271;
Portuguese businesses, 113;
Portuguese Festival, 111, 163, 199, 244, 270;
and Portuguese residents, 32, 33, 35, 88, 89, 100, 108, 111, 116, 148, 162;
and preservation of fishermen, 8, 35, 83;
Provincetown Art Association, 105, 161, 259;
Provincetown Players, 32;
recent demographic shifts, 34, 34, 35, 115;
School Committee, 271;
seasonal workers from Czech Republic, 35;
seasonal workers from Ireland, 35;
seasonal workers from Jamaica, 35, 239;
social preservation practices in, 80, 108–17;
struggling artists, 35, 108, 113;
tourism, 32, 80;
as tourist destination, 23, 32, 33, 98;
townies, 149–50;
town meeting, 270, 271;
275th birthday celebration, 270;
whaling, 32;
Year-Rounders' Festival, 148–49, 151, 270
P-town: Art, Sex, and Money on the Outer Cape (Manso), 233
public space, 215–19;
character of, 217, 295;
and community, 215–19;
content of, 217;
disruption of, 215–16;
heterogeneity as threat to, 217;
homogeneity of, 128, 217;
and homophobia, 115–16, 217–18;
old-timers' claims to, 217;
ownership of, 219;
parochial realm and, 219
Putnam, Robert, 288n10, 289n30, 295n4, 295n10, 296n18
Quercia, Roberto G., 214, 294n1
Quinceañra, 207
race, 150–51, 223;
and definition of old-timer, 150–51;
and diversity, 71–72, 99;
and segregation, 223;
and selection of old-timer, 177, 261. See also racism
racism, 54–55, 150–51, 187, 261, 273;
and definition of old-timer, 150–51;
and fear of crime, 55, 296n28;
and selection of old-timer, 177–78, 261, 288n11
Rado, D., 170
Radway, Janice A., 195, 289n32
Ranger, Terence, 148, 289n35
Ray, Amy: “Dirt and Dead Ends,” 14–15
real estate, 44, 89, 95, 98, 109, 111–12, 124, 129, 156, 158, 174, 187
real people, 148, 172;
and independence, 148;
and relationship to place, 148;
public definition of, 151;
and social preservationists' construction of old-timer, 145–79;
and tradition, 148
realtor(s), 6, 17, 110, 164, 187, 194, 204–5
Redfield, Robert, 289n30, 295n4
Reed, Christopher, 125
Reid, Elizabeth, 286n21
religion, 150, 170, 199;
Catholicism, 32, 117, 150, 187, 198–99, 217;
influence of, 170, 187;
and identity, 286n17
relocation, 9, 284n1, 296n26;
social homesteaders' motivations for, 10, 59, 66–67, 72;
social preservationists' motivations for, 80, 81–84, 87, 89, 96–97, 100, 164, 168, 173;
and old-timers' “voluntary displacement,” 226–33
research methods: approach, 45–46;
approach in Andersonville, 267–69;
approach in Argyle, 269–70;
approach in Dresden, 271–72;
approach in Provincetown, 270–71;
challenges, 275–76;
coding, 47–48;
comparative approach, 49–50, 143;
consequences of informants' exposure to, 231–33;
entry into field sites, 267–80;
festivals and, 47;
field notes, 46, 267–80;
formal observations, 267–80;
generalizability of findings, 181, 275, 290n3;
informal observations, 268–71;
interview questions, 273, 278–80;
interview recruitment, 273–74;
interviews, 47, 48;
interview sampling, 272–80, 290nn12;
interview schedule, 273, 278–80;
key informants, 275;
observation, 46;
observational sampling, 267–73;
observation of interaction, 267–80;
open-ended questions, 273;
research questions, 45–46;
researcher's identity and self-presentation, 276–77;
researcher's relationship to field sites, 1–2, 268–69, 269–70, 283n14;
sample, 48–49;
sample and civically engaged individuals, 48, 181, 274;
sampling methods, 267–80, 290n2;
site selection, 22, 49;
sites of observation, 46, 268–80;
textual resources, 46–47;
theoretically driven ethnography, 267;
three-tiered approach, 46, 267;
and use of pseudonyms, 281n1, 283n1;
(p.332) residential choice, 263, 285n5, 292n17;
as cultural, 61, 90, 96, 176, 209;
as rational, 16, 65
“Resolution and Independence” (Wordsworth), 159–60
Richards, C., 190
“Rich Gay, Poor Gay” (Colman), 233
Richmond, Maine, 27, 272
Rieder, Jonathan, 178
Riis, Jacob, 288n17
Robertson, Douglas, 214, 294n1
Robinson, Robert V., 176, 287n3, 289n34
Robinson, Tony, 294n1
Robson, Garry, 15, 17, 19, 251, 282nn810, 282n14, 282nn1819, 285n5, 297n7, 297n14, 298n18
Rose, Damaris, 6, 9, 17, 18, 19, 104, 180, 189, 211, 256, 282n7, 285n5
Rothenberg, Tamar, 180, 283n8, 285n14
Rothman, Stanley, 292n16
Rotolo, Thomas, 289n30
Roy, William G., 179, 289n29, 289n35, 290n36
rural gentrification, 5, 14–15, 141
Ryden, Kent, 289n35
Ryle, Robyn R., 176, 287n3, 289n34
safety;
appreciation for, 94;
and crime reduction efforts, 42–43, 67, 93, 121, 223, 234–35;
resistance to initiatives, 106
Said, Edward, 293n29
Salamon, Sonya, 281n3, 284n1, 287nn3131–32
Savage, Mike, 292n16, 292n20
Schill, Michael H., 294n1
Schmalenbach, Herman, 153, 223
school, 92, 100, 227–28, 244–45;
and ideology, 291nn1213;
old-timers' views of, 244
Schudson, Michael, 289n30
Schuyler, David, 288n8
Schwartz, Lisa, 286n21
Schwartzenberg, Susan, 18
Section 8 housing, 67, 269
Seely, C., 204
self-preservation, 143–44, 151, 160, 241–47, 297n30;
absence of, 161, 169;
and context, 143;
denial of, 151;
factors that encourage, 241–47
sense of community, 68, 70, 86–92, 166, 175–76, 198, 220–22, 259;
threats to, 89, 96, 214–19
Sexual Organization of the City, The (Laumann), 208
Sheridan, Jennifer T., 291n6
Shively, JoEllen, 292n20
Shorr, Kathy, 32, 117, 216, 233
Sibalis, Michael, 293n35
Simmel, Georg, 102, 203
Slater, Tom, 252
Small, Mario, 172, 252, 267, 273, 295n12
Smith, Darren P., 281n3, 283n8
Smith, Neil, 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 180, 189, 190,
Smith, Neil, 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 180, 189, 190, 214, 250, 282n7, 282n13, 285n5, 293n35, 294n1, 295n4, 297n30, 297n1, 297n14
Smith, Philip, 298n16
social ecology, 9, 13, 104;
threats to, 87
social homesteader(s): alliances with social preservationists, 85–86, 127, 132;
ambivalent relationship to gentrification, 55–56, 74–75, 78;
appreciation for authenticity, 55–57;
appreciation for diversity, 10, 71–75;
appreciation for landscape, 10, 61–65;
appreciation for longtimers, 61;
appreciation for melting pot, 56, 71, 75;
appreciation for nature, 61–62;
appreciation for social history, 57;
appreciation for transformation, 10, 47, 66–68, 71, 74–75, 78;
architectural preservation, 56–61;
attention to newcomers, 68–70;
attitude toward authenticity, 10;
attitude toward displacement, 59;
attitude toward progress, 10, 66–68, 74–75, 78;
building preservation, 55;
community formation, 65–71;
conflict with longtimers, 60, 62–63, 139;
conflict with newcomers, 76–77;
conflict with pioneers, 61;
conflict with social preservationists, 85;
contradictions inherent in, 11;
and crime reduction, 56;
defined, 10, 12, 47, 55–56, 250;
desire to limit rural population growth, 63;
and Dresden's Conservation Commission, 64;
and expression of beliefs, 134;
future orientation, 65–70;
history, 56–61;
identification with old-timers, 75–78;
indifference to longtimers, 68–69;
influence of context on, 123;
internal diversity, 56;
internal heterogeneity, 10, 65, 78;
landscape preservation, 10, 55–58, 61–65, 85, 140, 142;
and local organizations, 72–73;
and place characteristics, 56, 70;
reading habits, 189–90;
selfconsciousness, 55–56, 59;
self-transformation, 73;
social mobility, 183;
and social responsibility, 68;
television and film viewing, 192;
uplift strategy, 56, 75;
view of old-timers, 71, 135;
and volunteering, 73, 75
social preservation: absence of attention to, 251–57;
and accountability, 174;
and affordable housing, 80, 83, 85, 92, 106, 108;
and art, 8, 194;
breadth of, 12, 251;
consequences of expanding gentrification for, 129–30;
consequences of frontier and salvation ideology for, 121;
constancy of ideology, 11–12, 108, 143, 256, 285n5;
and context, 143–44;
contradictions inherent in, 11, 263;
and cosmopolitanism, 185, 199–202;
cultural location, 180;
and cultural omnivorism, 185;
defined, 8–9, 12, 47, 250;
and desire to give back, 114;
failures, 257–62;
as gentrification, 260–61;
historical location, 180;
ideology and demographic traits, 181;
implications for authenticity, 148;
implications for community (p.333) 148;
limits of, 19–20, 143–44;
and the local, 200;
as nostalgic, 102, 153;
origins, 15–16;
outcomes, 253, 257–62;
and place as discursive resource, 199;
place distinction, 81–103;
and political abstinence, 106;
and privilege, 157, 159, 178–79, 183, 189, 197, 203–4, 210–11, 254–55, 292n17;
as reaction to assimilation, 284n3;
and reading class, 190;
representations of, 191;
and resistance to gentrification, 80, 128, 155, 175 (see also social preservation practices);
as response to criticism of gentrification, 15;
and selection of old-timers, 146, 147;
and sense of personal culpability, 94;
and sexual identity, 202–11;
social location, 180;
and status acquisition, 255;
successes, 257–62;
as value-rational, 254. See also social preservation practices
social preservationist(s): acknowledgement of role in gentrification, 81, 93–94, 95–96, 99, 100;
admiration for old-timers' communities, 19, 80–103, 159–60, 284n3;
alliances with social homesteaders, 85–86, 127, 132;
antipathy toward other gentrifiers, 81, 86–87, 88–89, 89–91, 173, 231;
appreciation for cultural continuity, 163;
appreciation for diversity, 99, 119, 121, 284n3, 295n15;
appreciation for independence, 154–60;
appreciation for manual labor, 156;
appreciation for old-timers, 19, 80–103, 121, 284n3;
appreciation for tradition, 160–67;
appreciation for ungentrified space, 80, 153;
association of community with others, 148, 153;
attitudes toward displacement, 83, 84, 86–87, 127, 128–9, 199, 224;
books, 189–90, 195;
class position, 182–89;
compared to other preservationists, 287n8;
conflicts with social homesteaders, 85;
construction of local community, 163–64, 172;
construction of local tradition, 163–64;
cosmopolitanism, 199–202;
critique of tourism, 80, 98;
cultural objects' influence on, 192–96;
cultural tastes, 189–96;
cultural traits, 108, 180;
defined, 8–9, 47;
demographic traits, 108, 180, 181291nn56;
distance from old-timers, 173–74;
distaste for financial success, 154, 157–58;
distaste for gentrification, 84, 88, 94, 96, 99, 157–58;
distaste for privilege, 159;
distinctions from other gentrifiers, 99–100, 101, 182, 184, 185;
distinctions from social homesteaders, 127, 132, 135–36, 250–51;
education, 184–85;
film viewing, 180, 191, 192, 195;
identification as gentrifiers, 100, 255;
ideology, 8–9, 19, 80–103, 108, 153, 194, 195, 202, 212;
impetus for relocation, 80, 83–84, 96–97, 100, 164, 173;
and landscape preservation, 172;
lifestyle, 182;
and local organizations, 119–20, 220;
number of, 12;
occupation, 185, 185–89;
omnivorous orientation, 192, 196;
origin stories, 81–83;
personal culpability, 94, 174–75, 262;
place of origin, 197–99;
and political quandaries, 106;
privilege, 211;
reading habits, 180, 189–90;
relationship to community, 147, 175–76;
relationship to gay and lesbian newcomers, 89;
relationship to place of origin, 161;
residential patterns, 196–202;
resistance to gentrification, 80, 92, 97, 101;
resistance to historic preservation, 85;
romanticization of oldtimers, 81, 102;
self-consciousness, xi, 12, 100, 107, 259;
self-criticisms, 8, 12, 86–87, 89–90, 100, 157, 173;
self-perceived inauthenticity, 157, 173, 176, 262;
self-reflexivity, 11, 81, 185;
and sexual identity, 202–11;
social location, 180–81, 202, 211;
social mobility, 182;
social reproduction, 182;
status security, 189, 210, 211;
television viewing, 180, 189–90, 191, 192, 195;
views of diversity, 90–91;
views of other gentrifiers, 174, 231, 282n6. See also virtuous marginality
social preservation practices: in Andersonville, 126–34;
in Argyle, 117–26;
and art, 9, 80, 95, 104, 117, 156, 172, 188;
role of art, 105, 111–13, 133;
benefits, 107;
and block clubs, 106, 117;
and community meetings, 118, 119;
and comprehensive plans, 140, 281n1, 283n4;
in Dresden, 134–42;
emotional, 107;
financial, 84, 106–7, 121, 126;
influence of local context on, 20, 104, 108, 123, 140, 142–43;
as mutually constitutive, 108, 123–24, 133–34;
outlined, 9, 47, 101, 104;
paternalistic advocacy, 117, 124–25;
as place-specific, 107–8, 142;
political, 83, 104, 105–6, 108–10, 114, 126;
and political abstinence, 106, 110–11, 134, 142, 174;
private, 84, 95, 104, 106–7, 113–14, 126, 137;
in Provincetown, 80, 108–17;
and racism, 261;
by research site, 109;
risks of symbolic, 105;
symbolic, 104, 105, 111–13, 128, 133, 136;
variation in, 107–8, 142, 144;
volunteer work, 95, 138
Solnit, Rebecca, 18
Sontag, Susan: In America, 191
Sorkin, Alan L., 291n6
Spain, Daphne, 5, 10, 19, 51, 124, 219, 281n3, 282n14, 285n5, 294n1, 297n1
stage of gentrification, 239;
in Andersonville, 236;
in Argyle, 236;
in Dresden, 140–41;
and evolution of gentrifiers' ideology and practices, 285n5;
influence on old-timers' views of gentrifiers, 236, 239;
influence on social preservation practices, 108, 129–30;
nostalgia for earlier, 240;
pioneers' attention to, 123;
in Provincetown, 236
Stansell, Christine, 288n16
Starbucks: as indicator of displacement, 74, 117;
as indicator of gentrification, 94, 97, 119, 207;
as indicator of positive change, 58, 237;
as threat to authenticity, 91, 155, 165
Stratton, Jim, 6
Strauss, Anselm, 12
(p.334) streetscape: Andersonville's Swedish, 37, 49, 109, 125–26, 128, 130, 132–33, 145–46, 152, 170, 243–44, 250, 267–68;
Argyle's Asian-themed, 8, 54–55, 105, 109, 120–21, 125–26, 172, 245, 260, 269, 273;
contest over, 243–44;
and displacement, 145;
and institutionalization of character, 243;
longtimers' attitudes toward, 145;
meetings and data collection, 48, 273;
Neighborhoods Alive! and, 125–26;
and social preservation practices, 104–5, 109, 120–21, 125–26, 145, 165, 168–69, 172
Stueve, Ann, 291n13
subculture, 160, 175
suburbs: as inauthentic, 99, 161;
rejection of, 102, 197–98
Suttles, Gerald, 153, 170, 178, 289n27, 295n6
Swedish community. See Andersonville
Swidler, Ann, 142, 256, 285n4, 287nn3435, 297n13, 298n17
Tambyah, Siok Kuan, 200
tax increases: implications for longtimers, 84, 224–25;
as threat to authenticity, 84
tax policies: for elderly, 131, 225–226;
protective, 131, 225–226
Taylor, Ella, 207
Taylor, Monique, 6, 10, 17, 79, 282n10, 282n13, 282nn1819, 283n13, 285n5, 287n6, 298n18
Terinzini, Patrick T., 192
Thompson, Craig, 200
Tilly, Charles, 297n13
Tobin, Gary, 294n1, 295n11
Tönies, Ferdinand, 102, 219, 289n30, 295n4
tourism, 137, 297n10;
and authenticity, 81, 293n30;
critique of, 80, 116, 156;
and gentrification, 5, 67, 156, 260;
influence on culture, 231
tradition, 160–67;
accessible, 165;
construction of local, 163–64;
unique, 162–63
Trilling, Lionel, 289n35
Turnstall, Jeremy, 292n16
ungentrified space, 92, 97;
appreciation for, 9, 80, 93, 95–96, 99, 153
uplift: of old-timers, 71, 183;
of place, 183–84;
of self, 183–84
Uptown, 37, 41, 283n2;
and affordable housing debates, 118–33, 194;
and community, 72–73, 98, 194;
and gentrification, 91, 94, 97, 98;
Queer to the Left, 118–19, 204–5, 269, 294n38
urban invader, 12, 13
Van Liere, Kent D., 297n31
Ventresca, Marc, 298n15
Vigdor, Jacob L., 294n1, 296n22
virtuous marginality, 148, 289n29;
explained, 175;
implications of, 175, 262;
and morality, 174–75;
origins, 173;
relationship to authenticity, 172–73;
relationship to inauthenticity, 172–73;
and self-criticisms, 173
volunteer work: and Dresden's fire department, 75, 89–90;
and Dresden's thrift shop, 137;
social homesteaders', 73, 75;
social preservationists', 95, 138;
and Swedish American Museum, 95
Vorse, Mary Heaton, 29, 32
Walker, Alice: “Everyday Use,” 192–94
Walton, John, 153, 297n31
Warner, W. Lloyd, 284n1
Warren, John Robert, 291n6
Warren, Roland, 295n10, 296n18
Waters, Mary C., 287n3
Weber, Max, 11, 102, 254, 285n4
Weiner, Terry S., 192
Weiss, Richard, 288n21
Wellman, Barry, 289n30
Will and Grace, 192, 207, 257
Williams, Monte, 207
Williams, Raymond, xi
Wirth, Louis, 219, 289n30, 295n4
Wordsworth, William: “Resolution and Independence,” 159–60
working class: homesteaders' identification with, 78
Wright, Nathan, 161, 168
Wuthnow, Robert, 142, 289n32
Yardley, Jim, 190
Yin, Yu Hui: “Context in Architecture,” 281n5
youth: gentrifiers' fear of, 73;
as threat to gentrifi-cation efforts, 55. See also children
yuppie(s): as inauthentic, 97;
popular representations of, 14, 18, 74, 91, 106, 112, 205;
selfidentification as, 173;
as threat to old-timers, 14–15, 107, 190, 236;
and upgrading, 237
Zelizer, Viviana, 284n3
Zernike, Kate, 204
Zimmerman, Carle C., 200
Zipp, John F., 192
zoning restrictions, 85;
social preservationists' resistance to rural, 85, 106, 135
Zorbaugh, Harvey Warren, 289n30, 295n4
Zukin, Sharon, 5, 6, 7, 9, 16, 18, 19, 60, 93, 214, 219, 228, 231, 281n4, 282n7, 282nn1819, 285n14, 294n1, 295n4, 297n1