This chapter examines the ideas put forward by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in the Introduction to his Science of Logic. First, it discusses the argument that the ancients were in direct contact with natural experience owing to the absence of a philosophical tradition that would separate or mediate the two. Second, it considers the ancients’ conceptualization of natural experience within the context of dialectico-speculative logic. Third, it cites the Platonic dialogue Parmenides as an example of what Hegel has in mind, along with Aristotle’s first philosophy (prote philosophia) or metaphysics. It also looks at Hegel’s distinction between his logic and that of the tradition, which he does by repudiating the distinction between truth and validity. Finally, the chapter explores Hegel’s claim that the content of pure science—that is, of logic—is “objective thinking” rather than something purely formal in the traditional sense of the term.
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