This chapter explains that Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston quickly outgrew their first successful waterworks and found themselves in a continuous race with demand. From waterwheels, the three cities managed to improve their waterworks with turbine designs in the mid-nineteenth century. During the late 1800s, the theory and practice of waterworks became more technically sophisticated, capital-intensive, and standardized than it had been when Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston built their earlier systems. This period also saw the emergence of the first generation of formally trained hydraulic engineers, who drew on each other's knowledge and experience in building works to more consistent specifications.
Chicago Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.
To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.