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City Water, City LifeWater and the Infrastructure of Ideas in Urbanizing Philadelphia, Boston, and Chicago$
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Carl Smith

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780226022512

Published to Chicago Scholarship Online: September 2013

DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226022659.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CHICAGO SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.chicago.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of Chicago Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CHSO for personal use.date: 24 September 2021

Epilogue

Epilogue

Chapter:
(p.229) 7 Epilogue
Source:
City Water, City Life
Author(s):

Carl Smith

Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226022659.003.0007

This chapter explains that Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston quickly outgrew their first successful waterworks and found themselves in a continuous race with demand. From waterwheels, the three cities managed to improve their waterworks with turbine designs in the mid-nineteenth century. During the late 1800s, the theory and practice of waterworks became more technically sophisticated, capital-intensive, and standardized than it had been when Philadelphia, Chicago, and Boston built their earlier systems. This period also saw the emergence of the first generation of formally trained hydraulic engineers, who drew on each other's knowledge and experience in building works to more consistent specifications.

Keywords:   waterworks, Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, building works, hydraulic engineers

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