One of the most well-established relationships in the economics of aging is that between health and wealth. Yet this relationship is also changing in conjunction with a rapidly aging population as well as a broad evolution in how people live later in life. Building on findings from earlier editions in the National Bureau of Economic Research series, this book focuses on the changing financial circumstances of the elderly, and the relationship of these circumstances to health and health care. Among the topics addressed are the significance of out-of-pocket health care costs, the effects of inflation on social security, and the impact of the recent financial crisis on Americans' well-being. Encompassing new data and advances in research methodology, the developments presented in the book will have implications for economies worldwide.