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Late 19th-Century Russian Imperial Schemes and Habsburg-Potish Cartographic Borrowings in Galicia

Late 19th-Century Russian Imperial Schemes and Habsburg-Potish Cartographic Borrowings in Galicia

Chapter:
(p.158) Chapter Seven Late 19th-Century Russian Imperial Schemes and Habsburg-Potish Cartographic Borrowings in Galicia
Source:
Mapping Europe's Borderlands
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226744278.003.0008

This chapter examines Russian geographic visions of a historical, linguistic, and confessional order—rossiiskii and russkii—in terms of the ethnoschematized models that were borrowed, standardized, and conjoined to borderland priorities. Minority languages in Imperial Russia were subjected to ad hoc control and both “Rossification” and “Russification” measures in different provinces on an inconsistent case-by-case basis, particularly in the wake of the 1863–64 Polish uprising. While Russian geographic visions stressed a colonial manifest destiny eastward into “Asiatic” Siberia, Central Asia, and the Far East, Polish geographers insisted on their own vision of an eastern frontier, emphasizing Polish politics, culture, religion, and the desideratum of assimilation to modern Poland. As the tsars' de-Polonizing reforms favored a Russophone peasantry, the early modern legacy of borderlands in Ukraine and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was appropriated into all-Russian civil discourse that variably used rossiiskii and russkii after 1863, asserting the primacy of Russian language and high culture, especially in the education of “Polish” Slavic populations. In the nine provinces constituting Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Belarus, the collision of historical, territorial, and ethnographic claims by empires and nations was expressed by way of national intellectual borrowing and by states through their institutional practices.

Keywords:   imperial Russia, rossiiskii, russkii, cartography, minority languages, Poland, borderlands, Russian language, intellectual borrowing

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