The conclusion returns to the present and uses the stories of participation past as precursors to the technologically-enabled and institutionally mobile forms of participation of the 21st century. The rise of the apps, instruments, devices, platforms, and especially algorithms are said to enable new possibilities for human development and progress today. Over the last 10 years, the enthusiasm for such devices and tools has only seemed to intensify as people have taken the fire of participation and transformed it into algorithms, platforms, apps, and websites meant to facilitate and scale it up, so that it might move quickly around the world to wherever it might be needed. So too has the skepticism of participation and even outright rejection of it grown. Several lessons are proposed concerning participation: the role of groups, the visibility of participation, its dyadic or diarchic character, its mobility or inertia, and the possibility for disagreement that makes participation into a valuable ethical experience.
Keywords: algorithms, social media, personhood, disagreement, technology-mediated participation, toolkits