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Externalities and Representation beyond the State

Externalities and Representation beyond the State

Lessons from the European Union

Chapter:
(p.254) Chapter Eleven Externalities and Representation beyond the State
Source:
Creating Political Presence
Author(s):
Christopher Lord
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
DOI:10.7208/chicago/9780226588674.003.0012

How well individuals are represented in policies and laws that affect their lives has become a two-level problem. It requires an evaluation both of how well citizens are represented within democratic states and how well they are represented beyond the state. This chapter identifies a core structural difficulty. Under conditions of interdependence, even the ability of publics to secure rights and core values of justice, freedom and democracy within states depends on how well those publics are represented in the management of externalities between states. By way of illustration, the European Union has experimented with multiple forms of representation beyond the state: supranational, intergovernmental, transnational and interparliamentary. Yet each of those responses has different strengths and weaknesses in representing publics in choices over the management of externalities between the Union’s participating democracies.

Keywords:   externalities, European Union, two-level representation

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