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Varieties of Inclusive Representation

Varieties of Inclusive Representation

(p.141) Chapter Six Varieties of Inclusive Representation
Creating Political Presence
Samuel Hayat
University of Chicago Press

The standard opposition between political representation and participation is based on an exclusionary conception of representation, in which representatives monopolize power. But representation can also be inclusive when it enables the represented to become present and act directly on the political stage. This chapter discusses different forms of inclusive representation. First, inclusion by representation may happen through the partisan politicization of citizens, when they observe, judge and acquire the language of professional politicians. Citizens can also become politicized through autonomous representative devices outside the institutions of representative government. Taking social domination into consideration, inclusive representation may concern dominated social groups. As they are specifically excluded by the institutions of representative government, dominated groups may require distinctive means of representation, inside or outside the institutionalized political field. However, collective inclusive representation may also result in exclusion, when representatives speak for the groups without the latter’s members being able directly to enter the political stage. This risk is especially high when dominated social groups are not fully recognized as such and have to rely on representation for acquiring collective subjectivity. In such cases, only direct participation of the represented, sometimes against their representatives, is a criterion of inclusive representation.

Keywords:   inclusion, Bourdieu, 1848 Revolution

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